Resources.   Posted by GM.Group: 0
 GM, 375 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 18 Jun 2007
at 19:34
Trulia Hindsight
An interesting tool! Trulia Hindsight Maps of Properties Through Time
Trulia Hindsight is an animated map of homes in the United States from Trulia. The animations use the year the properties were built to show the growth of streets, neighborhoods and cities over time.

Focus on Miami! 1920 to present!!!

It starts out at South Beach.
Eric 'Papa' Henderschott
 player, 95 posts
 It was a dark and
 stormy night...
Mon 30 Jul 2007
at 02:32
WPA guide
FYI... Ran across this quote online: "If you ever run a game set in 1930s America, you need a WPA guide to the area you're setting the game in. They're reprinted periodically, but go to E-bay if you have to. These things are gold."
 GM, 402 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 30 Jul 2007
at 11:11
Re: WPA guide
Thanks! I'll see about getting a copy. There is one available on ebay now.

Florida. WPA. American Guide Series. 1939
Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Florida. Florida. A Guide To The Southernmost State. American Guide Series, Illustrated.(with photographs).  There is supposed to be a map in the back pocket of the inside back cover- it is missing. New York. Oxford University Press. 1939. The front end papers are a Key To Florida Highway Tours. 5 1/2 by 8 1/4 inches bound in green cloth with dark blue lettering. 600 pages. The binding is well worn and is only in fair condition, fraying around the edges and corners, and soiling. It is tight and contains a lot of information. $4.95 Priority S&H in the U.S. $3.50 Media.

Current bid is $5.99. Sounds like a bargain!

Thanks again!
 GM, 403 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 30 Jul 2007
at 12:30
The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald
In case anyone is interested in reading or downloading online for free, here is "The Great Gatsby" by F. Scott Fitzgerald.


The file can be downloaded in a Zip file:

More info about it is here:
Published April 10, 1925. Just before our game time and very timely and appropriate to our game. I haven't read it yet, but I hope to get around to it sometime. Probably after reading Harry Potter. LOL!
Lillian 'Lil' Lebeau
 player, 255 posts
Wed 22 Aug 2007
at 18:39
Swimsuits of the '20s

Just for a fun giggle on what was considered 'risque' in the twenties. They've also got some good historical information.
 GM, 424 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 27 Aug 2007
at 00:32
Hospitals in the '20s
Jackson Memorial Hospital
Built in 1916 and expanded to 250 beds in the twenties.

During the 1920s, the hospital grew to 250 beds as a real estate boom brought thousands of new settlers to Miami, and the School of Nursing was established. In 1924 following the death of Dr. James M. Jackson, the first permanent physician in Miami and the first chief of the hospital's medical staff, the Miami City Hospital was renamed in his honor.
 GM, 432 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Wed 29 Aug 2007
at 18:46
History of Miami Beach

Miami Beach History

South Beach isn't an official city, but rather it is an informal name attached to approximately the southern one third of Miami Beach. South Beach is in fact the originally inhabited part of Miami Beach.

The history of Miami Beach really starts in 1870. John Lum, from New Jersey, was returning from Havana, saw what is now MiamiBeach from a ship, and decided it looked like a promising place to establish a coconut plantation. He started that venture in 1882, but the business eventually failed. His son Charles, along with Charles' wife, tried to live in the area for a few more years, butsince Miami Beach was then primarily a swampy jungle, they toogave up and left. To this day, coconut palm trees are plentiful throughout Miami Beach.

Southern Florida in general got a boost from a man named Henry Flagler, who co-founded Standard Oil with John D. Rockefeller. Despite being retired, Flagler became interested in Florida on avisit, and bought two railroads. He extended those further south than they had previously been, reaching Miami in 1896. Heeventually extended his railroad all the way to Key West, building the foundation for the road that now connects the Keys to the Florida mainland in the process.

In 1896, a New Jersey farmer named John Collins, who had lost money in John Lum's ill-fated coconut venture, visited the area tosee why the business had failed. He felt the area did in fact show agricultural promise, and eventually acquired 1,675 acres of landin 1909 (at the age of 71!). He succeeded in growing mangoes, avocados, bananas, and other tropical fruits. Collins in 1912 built the first bridge from Miami Beach to mainland Miami on the siteof what is now the Venetian Causeway.

But the area really took off based on the efforts of a man by thename of Carl Fisher, an Indianapolis automobile baron. He madea large fortune by developing one of the early headlights for the fledgling automobile industry. He eventually sold his Prest-o-Lite business to Union Carbide, thus becoming even richer. Flagler decided the railroad would bring winter tourists to southern Florida, and wanted to form a business venture to capitalize onthat. He ultimately chose what is now Miami Beach as that site.

At the time, Miami Beach was literally a swamp, dominated by a thick mangrove jungle, and inhabited by alligators and other wildcreatures. Fisher acquired a substantial amount of land (partially from John Collins in exchange for helping finance his bridge to the mainland), and funded the monumental task of having people cutdown (primarily by hand) the thick mangrove jungle. He thenspent about two years (and literally millions of dollars) dredgings and from the bottom of Biscayne Bay, and putting it on top of thelevelled mangrove trees. Once that sand had been filled to a suitable height, and had dried, he had a layer of topsoil broughtin, and planted grass. During those dredging operations, he also formed some of the islands which are now part of Miami Beach, including Star Island, Belle Island, and Sunset Island. The dredging also had the beneficial side effect of making Biscayne
Bay suitable for recreational boating.

The ultimate purpose of Fisher's huge investment was to sell the resulting property. He helped two Miami banker brothers, named J.E. and J.N. Lummus, set up the first real-estate company. They established Ocean Beach Realty, and set up an office to sell the 580 acres of what is now South Beach that they had acquired.

The main portion of Miami Beach was originally a peninsula. In 1924, a strip of land around what is now 110th Street was blown away to allow for boat traffic between Biscayne Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. This turned the main part of Miami Beach into an island.

Fisher spent many years cultivating and promoting Miami Beach as a vacationland for people from the midwest and the northeast. He built incredible homes and hotels, and enticed his many millionaire friends to likewise develop elegant hotels and homes. It was his money and connections that largely were responsible for the upscale orientation that has long been a part of Miami Beach's (and thus South Beach's) history.

In 1920, there were only 644 permanent residents in Miami Beach, and all eighty phones could be listed on a single page in the Miami telephone directory. Then as the 1920s went on, however, Florida in general, and Miami Beach specifically, experienced a tremendous land boom. As the stock market went up dramatically, more and more people had the money to buy land and build homes. By 1925, Miami Beach had grown to 15,000 residents. During this boom of the 1920s, some of the unique buildings were constructed that still remain today. In particular, the popular style of that era was Mediterranean Revival. And Spanish-style architecture was used in some locations such as in the vicinity of Española Way.

Two disasters hit Miami Beach, resulting in the end of the boom times. The first was a major hurricane in 1926. Since many of the buildings were put up hastily, the damage from the hurricane was quite severe. Then of course in 1929, the whole country was hit with the stock market crash, and beginning of the resulting Depression.

Miami Beach recovered from these fairly well, however, and slowly but surely the 1930s evolved into a second boom era. It seemed that the beautiful beaches, sun, and warmth of Miami Beach (including South Beach) just couldn't be held in check for long. By the mid-to-late 1930s, Miami Beach buildings were once again going up, with the South Beach region experiencing the biggest boom. People wanted to see a change, and the architecture now known as Art Deco (the term first used in the 1960s to describe a ground-breaking design show held in Paris in 1925) provided a light-hearted and exciting new environment. There were several architects that designed a very large number of structures that still stand today during this period. In the 1930s, 2,028 homes, 164 hotels, and 485 apartment buildings were built. Late 1930s era photos of Ocean Drive, Collins Avenue, and Washington Avenue look amazingly similar to how those streets look today.

The 1940s saw World War II. For a variety of reasons, Miami Beach became virtually a military base during the 1940s. During WWII Miami Beach became a training center for early 500,00 U.S. Army Air Corps Cadets Military personnel trained on the beaches, and lived in the many hotels and apartment buildings. Although the building boom slowed during this peroid, the presence of significant military personnel
(and thus money, and the need for housing) caused construction to continue. The period during and after the war also saw Miami Beach's nightlife to flourish (and it still does today).

In the 1950s and 1960s, Miami Beach overall thrived as one of the premier vacation destinations. However, the portion of Miami Beach known as South Beach started a downward trend as people migrated further to the northern part of Miami Beach. New and much larger hotels and apartment building were built, particularly along Collins Avenue. The older Art Deco buildings from the 1930s and early 1940s were quickly going out of style, as compared to the new mega-resort complexes like the Fontainebleau and the Eden Roc.

Ultimately, Miami Beach had enough hotel rooms for the very large number of annual visitors, and the building boom tapered off. The last new luxury hotel built in Miami Beach for a very long time (until 1998) was the Hilton in 1967.

The 1970s and 1980s were a down period for Miami Beach, and a very down period for South Beach. In 1960, the average age of a Miami Beach resident was 50. In 1972, the average age had increased to 65. And not only were many of the residents fairly old, they were increasingly poor and suffering from bad health. South Beach was in fact nick-named "God's waiting room" by some. Crime was also rampant throughout the area.

By the 1980s, it became clear that something had to be done to bring back the glory days of Miami Beach. One major effort was the replenishment of the beach itself. Years of wind and surf and unchecked beachfront building had taken its toll on the beach. Many of the building went right to the ocean, and there was literally almost no beach for public use. The Army Corps of Engineers once again looked to dredging (although this time from the Atlantic Ocean) to solve the problem. The project took nearly three years, and by 1982, Miami Beach had a completely new beachfront, increased in width by about 250 feet, and stretching about ten miles long (going from South Beach to in fact further north than even Miami Beach). This resulted in the beautiful sandy beach which is considered such a treasure today.

Many influential people in Miami Beach felt it was time to tear down the old Art Deco buildings to make room for more high rise hotel complexes. Such demolition was in fact started when a woman by the name of Barbara Baer Capitman took an interest in preserving the old buildings. She founded the Miami Design Preservation League, a non-profit organization devoted to preserving the rich history of Miami Beach. She crusaded to have the Art Deco buildings placed on the National Historical Register, and ultimately succeeded in getting approximately 400 bulidings listed in 1979. The buildings were the youngest placed on the Register (in fact, the only ones from the twentieth century). Also, the area so designated (roughly one square mile) was the largest area on the Register. The Art Deco District lies between 5th Street and 23rd Street, and between the Atlantic Ocean and Lenox Avenue. Barbara Capitman is viewed by most as the person who saved the beautiful Art Deco buildings which are now universally viewed as part of the rich visual content of South Beach.

Although there were many factors in the resurgence of South Beach, perhaps two things stand out more others. One was the popular television show Miami Vice, which was filmed to a large degree in South Beach. The beautiful people, cool clothes, hip music, and exotic cars captured the world's imagination (even if with a significant dose of crime and violence). South Beach started to show a bit of resurging magic as it moved to the late 1980s, due in part to this show.

Then the fashion industry provided the second boost. Photographers, always looking for unique scenery, good and predictable sunlight, and a warm place for shooting during the winter months, found that South Beach provided a truly fabulous setting. Fashion magazines began showing up with photos taken around the nature and architecture of South Beach, and people started to take note of just how beautiful the place was. The modeling industry took note and many modeling agencies established a major presence in South Beach.

Today, it is estimated that there are over 1,500 professional models working basically full time in South Beach during the season (the winter), and many more working at least part time. Although this may not be as many as in New York, Paris, or London, one must keep in mind this is in roughly a one square mile area rather than in a large city. Many have said there are more models per square area in South Beach than in any other location in the world, and merely strolling down the sidewalk is evidence of that.

All of this combined to turn South Beach around, and into one of the most desired locations in the world. Money once again started pouring in, with the beautiful Art Deco buildings continually being restored to their former elegance, and incredible new condominium complexes like the Portofino Towers and Il Villagio being built with wonderfully modern interpretations of the Art Deco architecture.

South Beach is now "the happening" place. The beautiful, the rich, and the famous come here not only for periods of the winter, but increasingly even during the summer. The place is just too fabulous to stay away, and everyone who comes here always goes home with incredible memories of a great time.

For those wishing to read further about the history of Miami Beach, the following is an excellent book which was used as a reference for some of the above information: "The Life and Times of Miami Beach" written by Ann Armbruster, and published in 1995 by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York.
 GM, 434 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Thu 30 Aug 2007
at 13:20
Pulp Game Resources
From the Yahoo Pulp Games Group
There is a Pulp Game resourse that one of the members put together for their game.
It is based upon the early 30's and in Europe, BUT! there is a lot of cool information to be found in their site:

Search through the various categories for areas of interest.
There are diagrams and charts that may catch your attention.

Sears, Roebuck - Summer 1933 catalog
Cars, planes, trains, ships.
Currency and gems.
Spy agencies and more.

It is certainly worth a look-see.
 GM, 442 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Fri 7 Sep 2007
at 12:45
What was in 1907 (One hundred years ago)
The year is 1907, one hundred years ago.
What a difference a century makes!
Here are some of the U.S. Statistics for the Year 1907:

The average life expectancy in the U.S. was 47 years old.

Only 14 percent of the homes in the U.S. had a bathtub.

Only 8 percent of the homes had a telephone.

A three-minute call from Denver to New York City cost eleven dollars.

There were only 8,000 cars in the U.S. and only 144 miles of paved roads.

The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 mph.

Alabama, Mississippi, Iowa, and Tennessee were each more heavily populated than California.

With a mere 1.4 million people, California was only the 21st most populous state in the Union.

The tallest structure in the world was the Eiffel Tower.

The average wage in the U.S. was 22 Cents per hour.
The average U.S. Worker made between $200 and $400 per year.
A competent accountant could expect to earn $2000 per year.
A dentist made $2,500 per year.
A veterinarian $1,500 per year.
And a mechanical engineer about $5,000 per year.

More than 95 percent of all births in the U.S. took place at HOME.

Ninety percent of all U.S. Doctors had no college education! Instead, they attended so-called medical schools, many of which were condemned in the press AND the government as 'substandard.'

Sugar cost four cents a pound.

Eggs were fourteen cents a dozen.

Coffee was fifteen cents a pound.

Most women only washed their hair once a month, and used Borax or egg yolks for shampoo.

Canada passed a law that prohibited poor people from entering into their country for any reason.

Five leading causes of death in the U.S.:
1. Pneumonia and influenza
2. Tuberculosis
3. Diarrhea
4. Heart disease
5. Stroke

The American flag had 45 stars: Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Hawaii, and Alaska hadn't been admitted to the Union yet.

The population of Las Vegas, Nevada was only 30!!!!

Crossword puzzles, canned beer, and ice tea hadn't been invented yet.

There was no Mother's Day or Father's Day.

Two out of every 10 U.S. Adults couldn't read or write.
Only 6 percent of all Americans had graduated from high school.

Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were all available over the counter at the local corner drugstores. Back then pharmacists said, 'Heroin clears the complexion, gives buoyancy to the mind regulates the stomach and bowels, and is, in fact, a perfect guardian of health.'?

There were about 230 reported Murders in the ENTIRE U.S.A.


There were considerable changes even by 1925.
I'll try to find some stats.
 GM, 453 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Wed 19 Sep 2007
at 15:28
1920s History Sites
1920s History Sites:
(Has several links as well)
(Has tons of links and a timeline)

Illinois Trails:

Yahoo Directory:

General History linking Prohibition and the Flapper culture:

St. Valentines Day Massacre
Al Capone
The Lawless Decade:

The Roaring Twenties:

Fashion in the 1920s:

Consumerism in the 1920s:

1920's Books:
 GM, 459 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 24 Sep 2007
at 14:59
Gulf of California area - Sea of Cortez
Gulf of California area - Sea of Cortez

Here are some images of the Gulf of California if the sealevel was to rise from the current level to up to 6 meters. Apparently, a lot of the land masses are well above 6 meters above the current sea level.

It shows that the vast majority of the Guardian Angel Island remains, so the majority of the island is over 6 meters above sea level. For expedition purposes, that means that there is a good deal of climbing and higher terrain.

And the island is over 50 km East to West and over 60 km North to South. It looks like it is almost shaped like the Lower Peninsula of Michigan.

Current image of the area:

To the 6 meter rise:
 GM, 462 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 1 Oct 2007
at 15:14
Tamiami Trailblazers of the 1920's
NOTE: The Tamiami Trail wasn't available at the time of our game. But there was a huge demand for people to work on this project, including hunters to keep things safe for the workers. Our Big Game hunters may want to consider this as something to think about to sign up with, after returning from their San Felipe expedition.


scocking @ miamiherald . com


Back in 1923, when completion of the 275-mile Tamiami Trail from Tampa to Miami was stalled, 23 men calling themselves the Tamiami Trailblazers and two Seminole guides decided to cross the Everglades in cars.

To demonstrate that the final section could be built through the treacherous swamp between Fort Myers and Miami, they set out in their Fords on April 4, a Wednesday, intending to reach Miami four days later.

Their cars got stuck in the marsh, forcing them to board a Caterpillar tractor, build 17 bridges by hand, cut through eight miles of dense cypress forest, and get food and gas dropped in by bomber aircraft. The supposed five-day journey of 190 miles took 23 days.

But the Trailblazers got everyone's attention: After much drilling, blasting and dredging, the highway was completed in 1928.

Nearly 80 years later, Trail travel is a lot easier, although one can still find plenty of Trailblazer-like, outdoorsy and touristy things to do heading west out of Miami-Dade. Here are some highlights of a recent 74-mile car trip from the outskirts of Miami to the outskirts of Naples:

• Dade Corners Travel Center, 17696 SW Eighth St. (corner of Krome Avenue and Tamiami Trail).

This is your one-stop shop for just about everything you need for trail-braving: gasoline, canoes, guns, propane, fishing rods, camo wear, goggles. Also glass figurines, preserved gator heads, coffee mugs in the shape of women's breasts, and Subway sandwiches.

After loading up, but before continuing west, turn back about a block, hang a U, and test-fire your gun at . . .

• Trail Glades Range, 17601 SW Eighth St.

Operated by Miami-Dade Parks, this is a favorite hangout of hunters, police officers, security guards and target shooters. There's a rifle-pistol range and a separate area for skeet and trap. If you don't have your own, you can rent a rifle or shotgun.

On the day of my visit, a group from the Keys (where it's illegal to shoot guns anywhere) were practicing their skills on clay targets. Readying their shotguns, they called, ''Pull!'' and range master Mike Kuvin pressed a button that sent disc targets flying in all directions.

''It's fun for me,'' said Eddie Wenzel of Sugarloaf Key. ``I don't hunt anymore. You keep your skills up.''

Islamorada's Ken Gleason managed to hit 24 of 25 targets, which bodes well for the upcoming fall duck hunting season.

''If it flies, it dies,'' Gleason said, laughing.

Having heard enough gunfire, it was time to embrace a different kind of loud noise at . . .

• Coopertown Airboat Tours, about five miles west of Dade Corners, Tamiami Trail.

For $19, we took a 40-minute airboat ride into the sawgrass marsh of the East Everglades with guide Chris Malm and got to watch a real-life swamp soap opera.

Arriving in Shark River Slough, we saw a brilliantly colored purple gallinule being menaced by a five-foot alligator. The bird stood at water's edge, cheeping in distress at the gator.

Suddenly, three grayish-brown chicks emerged from the sawgrass and began to pick their way with long, spindly legs over the vegetation away from the villain's jaws. The gator, defeated, submerged. Happy ending.

Back at the dock, visitors posed for photos holding baby gators and reveling in their alleged bravery.

The next gator sighting occurred a little farther west at . . .

• The S-333 spillway near the ValuJet Memorial, about 12 miles west of Dade Corners.

Seated canalside on folding chairs about 20 yards apart were Mae Mack of Miami and her adult daughters Guitannie Randolph and Pam Brown. Armed with two 20-foot-long cane poles each, the three were trying to catch bass, bluegill, catfish, mullet, or bream despite the presence of a seven-foot gator intent on intercepting their hooked fish.

''Sometimes they come and grab the pole,'' Mack said, nodding toward the reptile.

Fortunately, the animal was slow on the draw, allowing Mack to land a bluegill and a mullet in quick succession.

''I'm going to clean them and cook them,'' she said happily.

Once again, a gator went hungry. But its cousins probably fared much better farther west at . . .

• Shark Valley entrance, Everglades National Park, about 18 miles from Dade Corners.

The best place to view large numbers of gators, Shark Valley offers tram tours and bicycle rentals along a paved 15-mile loop trail through a vast, grassy prairie. Gators swim in ponds along the the roadway, station themselves at the ends of culvert pipes to intercept fish and warm themselves along the canal banks.

A bicyclist once observed from a distance as a hungry reptile ambushed an anhinga and devoured it in the middle of the road. Visitors can watch piles of gators from a 65-foot observation tower at the trail's halfway point.

At Shark Valley, travelers now have choices to make: Cross the highway from the park entrance and eat fried catfish, frog legs and gator bites in the air conditioning at the Miccosukee Restaurant; go next door to the Miccosukee convenience store and sample pickled pigs' feet for $2; stop and fish for bass in the L-28 canal aboard a small outboard-powered Gheenoe as Miami's Herbert Hatch has been doing for the past 42 years; or take an unguided side trip through the Big Cypress National Preserve on the mostly unpaved 24-mile Loop Road.

We skipped the fried and pickled local cuisine, took a short but speedy Gheenoe ride with Hatch, and traveled the entire Loop Road.

For the record, Hatch's best day on the L-28 was in October three years ago when he caught and released 216 bass using a Heddon baby torpedo lure. He says the fishing used to be good back by Krome Avenue, but these days he drives nearly 22 miles west to catch bass. His paddle bears the scars of skirmishes with gators.

• Loop Road, about 22 miles from Dade Corners. Don't think about a side trip unless you've got at least two hours to kill.

This shady, scenic one-lane road through the swamp goes from primitively paved to pocked with puddles within just a few miles. Best traveled by mountain bike, Loop Road provides excellent wildlife viewing opportunities; you might see deer, otter, gator, bobcat or black bear. A rich array of bird life includes wood stork, egret, great blue heron, cormorant and anhinga.

Some of the cypress marsh vistas will look familiar. That's because they are depicted in the acclaimed black-and-white photographs of Clyde Butcher, which you can admire or buy at . . .

• Big Cypress Gallery, 52388 Tamiami Trail, about 43 miles from Dade Corners.

The world-renowned photographer was not here the day we visited. Sales associate Ailyn Hoey told us he was exhibiting his work in Virginia, after having recently completed America the Beautiful: The Monumental Landscape, a book of photographs taken at 18 national parks in 2006.

Perusing Butcher's stark, silver-tinged views of the South Florida landscape is always a treat; his northern images inspire as well.

One subject Butcher has failed to capture is the notorious Everglades Skunk Ape -- the smelly, seven-foot tall Big Foot/Sasquatch look-alike reputed to live in the swamp. To view images of the Skunk Ape, you must head for . . .

• Skunk Ape Research Headquarters, 40904 Tamiami Trail, about 52 miles from Dade Corners.

Chief researcher Dave Shealy, author of Everglades Skunk Ape Research Field Guide, was off conducting field studies in the Big Cypress on the day of our visit. Rick Scholle, working the front desk of the combination gift shop/campground/zoo, didn't give the subject much credence.

''The only thing more elusive than the Skunk Ape is the research into the Skunk Ape,'' he sniffed. ``I'm in charge of the animals that do exist.''

By way of explanation, Scholle led us into the back of the shop where several Burmese and reticulated pythons, a Nile monitor lizard, anaconda, parrots, macaws, and cockatoos reside in pens and cages.

Everyone got to hold and pet Sassy the cockatoo, whose attention-getting whistle is so shrill that it got him kicked out of Islamorada's Theater of the Sea.

Food for Sassy and the other animals -- including crickets for the snakes -- are delivered from the smallest post office in the United States . . .

• The Ochopee Post Office, about 55 miles from Dade Corners.

A favorite stop of shutter-snapping European tourists, this eight-foot, four-inch by seven-foot, three-inch building is run by postmaster Nanette Watson, a six-year veteran and Ochopee native. Watson sorts the mail for more than 900 residents from Jerome to Shark Valley, which is delivered by a lone carrier with a route that stretches 132 miles across three counties.

Watson loves her job, despite the sometimes intrusive wildlife.

''We used to have pygmies [rattlesnakes] in here really bad till we redid the floor,'' Watson said nonchalantly. ``Snakes, spiders, ants, rats -- that's just part of the job. But I'm not crazy about flying palmetto bugs.''

For the record, Watson has never seen the Skunk Ape. However, a likely place to look might be the . . .

• The Big Cypress Bend Boardwalk, about 65 miles from Dade Corners.

Here is a 6/10-mile wooden walkway through a dark and mysterious-looking swamp where there's the potential for observing not only the swamp's Sasquatch, but gators, black bear, pileated woodpecker, several varieties of wading birds, even otters. Many of the larger tree trunks are encircled by the boughs of strangler figs, which look like squiggly wooden snakes.

The strangler fig once was famously misunderstood by a New York City journalist who thought his guide said ''strangler pig'' and kept an all-night vigil for a tree-dwelling predator intent on throttling him in his sleep.

Nearing the end of the sparsely settled portion of the Trail just before the outskirts of Naples is . . .

• Collier-Seminole State Park, 20200 E. Tamiami Trail, Naples, about 73 ½ miles from Dade Corners.

Here you can camp, hike and bike beneath a thick canopy of royal palms, gumbo limbo, and Jamaican dogwood, or stroll a boardwalk through a mangrove swamp that ends overlooking a salt marsh.

You can also launch a boat, canoe or kayak and go fishing.

But to truly appreciate all that you have seen in your Trail trek, take a good long look at the peculiar mechanical contraption just past the ranger station. It's a walking dredge that helped dig the highway out of the swamp back in the day -- now designated a historic mechanical engineering landmark.

You can thank 1920s Trail investor Barron Collier, for whom the park (and the county) are named, for your quick and easy drive back to Miami.

This message was last edited by the GM at 15:14, Mon 01 Oct 2007.

 GM, 463 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 1 Oct 2007
at 15:17
Entrepreneurs of 1920s had big dreams for Rockledge

Entrepreneurs of 1920s had big dreams for Rockledge
September 9, 2007

Anticipating growth. When the original Rockledge Municipal Building was constructed in the 1920s during the Florida Land Boom, some entrepreneurs anticipated big growth in the area. The historic structure is being remodeled by the city and already is attracting history buffs, such as those shown at a recent reception. Lynn Pickett, for FLORIDA TODAY

Rockledge is a lovely community, and most of its residents probably like it just about the size it is -- about 25,000 people living (mostly) quiet lives.

In 1925, however, Harry Bourinot had big dreams for the riverfront town. Bourinot came from Miami and formed the Cocoa-Rockledge Land Co. with Gus Edwards, a young Georgia lawyer.

Bourinot wanted to make Rockledge "The City Supreme" of the entire area. He envisioned a town of 100,000 people with 600 new homes, an airport, hospital, tourist camp, cannery and cold storage plant, and 12 schools. To get started, the Cocoa-Rockledge Land Co. platted a 40-acre, five-street grid near Barton Boulevard and Fiske Road began building a hospital on what is now Huntington Lane, south of Barton Boulevard.

About that time, the fabled Florida land boom of the 1920s crashed to a close. Bourinot lost everything, and his grand plans were soon forgotten by nearly everyone.

Debra Wynne, archivist at the Florida Historical Society Library in Cocoa Village, shared information with me when I was researching Valencia Road, another project of the boom.

The Roaring '20s in Brevard are still a time of legend, probably because many of our prized historic buildings arrived on the scene during that period. In Cocoa, there was the Aladdin Theater, now the Cocoa Village Playhouse, and the still-lamented Brevard Hotel. St. Mark's Episcopal Church was remodeled in that same time frame.

Rockledge built a new municipal building to house city offices and the town's first mechanized fire truck. Improvements in roads, streetlights and sidewalks were started, and a block of store building went up at Orange Avenue and Rockledge Drive. The old Hotel Indian River, a resort hotel built in 1885, was demolished. In its place, a new Mediterranean Revival structure with a swimming pool went up in 1923.

The chambers of commerce in Cocoa and Melbourne promoted the area with brochures designed to attract tourists, new residents and businesses to their towns. An exhibition of Indian River citrus appeared in Madison Square Garden in New York City and aimed at investors and entrepreneurs who might enjoy a warmer climate.

As quickly as the land boom began, it was over, leaving behind a trail of failed banks, over-extended investors and bankrupt builders. In 1928, the Cocoa Bank and Trust Co. failed after it was revealed that cashier J.C. McLeon had embezzled more than $1 million. The Great Depression started early in Florida and got worse after the stock market crash of 1929.

Even so, some of the homes and buildings that took shape during that exciting period still grace our county. Standing in front of one of the beautiful homes designed by architect Richard Rummell along Valencia Road in Rockledge, it is hard not to be glad that entrepreneurs in the 1920s dreamed big and built well.

Contact Lynn Pickett at floylynn @ aol . com if you would like to suggest a history spotlight topic.
 GM, 466 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Tue 2 Oct 2007
at 17:41
Doctor's and Medicine of the 1920s, after World War I
A link was just provided by our new Doctor:
The Medical Front

This provides extensive medical information about what was available in the 1920's.
And lots of helpful links!

More sites:

The Early History of the Infant Mortality Rate in America: "A Reflection Upon the Past and a Prophecy of the Future"

This message was last edited by the GM at 17:58, Tue 02 Oct 2007.

 GM, 467 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Tue 2 Oct 2007
at 18:07
Shaffer Library of Drug Policy - 1920's
Shaffer Library of Drug Policy
Liquor Control, Temperence, and the Call for Prohibition

Historical Research on Drug Policy - 1920's

Did Alcohol Prohibition Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Crime?

Was Alcohol Prohibition the most lawful period in US history?

It Pays to be Tough on Drugs (A bad assertion?)

THE OPIUM MONOPOLY - Table of Contents

What Prohibition Has Done to America

And many many more articles on the 1920's are found on the main page:
 GM, 468 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Tue 2 Oct 2007
at 18:24
A Doctor's medical bag - 1920's
What one would find in a Doctor's bag in the 1920's.

A doctor's bag filled with obstetric instruments and supplies, donated by R.P. Westover, M.D., in December 1960. The case and contents are generally in good condition, although rubber pieces have hardened and cracked. The black leather bag has dual leather-covered handles and brass hardware.

It contains: 1) magnifying lens in a small leather pouch, 2) two razor shavers, 3) tweezer-type uterine dilator, 4) two tweezer-type tissue forceps, 5) eight rolls of bandage material, 6) small trocar, 7) two directors, 8) ear spoon with applicator, 9) scissors, 10) two hemostats, one curved and one straight, 11) cylindrical metal canister containing wooden tongue depressors, 12) Schick electric razor with carrying case and power cord, 13) seven packages of sterile gauze pads, 14) eleven glass vials of suture material, 15) glass vial filled with sulfathiazole, 16) box containing ampules of evipal and water, 17) two blue glass bottles of thyptol, 18) small glass jar with lid, 19) hypodermic ampule of metacaine, 20) box of red pills identified as Cascara compound, 21) bottle containing epragen capsules, 22) green bottle of sulfanilamide, 23) black plastic vial with cap, 24) binaural stethoscope, 25) box of steel safety pins, size #1, 26) two bottles of metycaine, 27) roll of adhesive tape in a metal package, 28) box of circumcision sutures, 29) seven rolls of gauze, and 30) nine medicine droppers in a small box.
Shows contents.
A leather surgical doctor's bag, donated by J.M. Batcheller, M.D., in March 1961. The black leather bag measures 42 x 14.5 x 19 cm. The case contains: 1) two retractors, 2) Wieder's small tongue depressor, 3) Bosworth's steel tongue depressor, 4) four bougies, sizes 15, 24, 26, and 29, 5) two uterine curettes, 6) minor surgery knife, marked "Rockey, England," 7) three sounds, 8) placental curette, 9) three urethral sounds, marked "W.C. & Co.," 10) plain bone shears, 11) curved tissue scissors, 18 cm long, 12) tonsillotome, 13) spiral placental curette, 14) mouth gag, 15) double ended vaginal speculum, 16) double bladed vaginal speculum, 17) Simpson's uterine sound, 18) curved compression forceps, 19) two curved tenaculum forceps, 20) small vulsellum forceps, 21) graduated uterine sound, 22) nasal cutting forceps, 23) Cushing's vulsellum forceps, 24) straight vulsellum, 18 cm long, 25) uterine dilator, 29 cm long, 26) plain uterine douche, 29 cm long, 27) two hemostatic forceps, 28) tissue scissors, 19 cm long, 29) spoon curette, 18 cm long, 30) rectal proctoscope, 13 cm long, 31) metal syringe with double aspirator nozzle, 32) sphygmomanometer, with printed instruction booklet, 33) two sharp uterine curettes, without handles, 34) two spoon curettes, without handles, 35) double-ended blunt uterine curette, 25 cm long, 36) two placental forceps, 25 and 30 cm long, 37) two small hemostatic forceps, 38) curette handle, 39) regular pattern nasal scissors, 40) double-ended tonsil spatula and knife, 41) throat forceps, 42) three metal cotton applicators, 29 cm long, 43) thin eyed probe, 28 cm long, 44) seven metal sounds, French scale sizes 19, 20, 23, 27, 29, and 31, 45) Recamier's uterine sound, 26 cm long, 46) catheter with single loop handle, 24.2 cm long, 47) Leonard's uterine douche, 27.5 cm long, 48) purple cloth instrument roll with instrument loops, 49) Mathieu-Kersten needle holder, 20 cm long, 50) trocar set in a small case, with three needles, 51) angled nasal knife, 21.5 cm long, 52) bone chisel, 13 cm long, 53) wire dilator with screw adjustment, and 54) metal pipette. The case and instruments are in good condition.
Shows contents.;CISOBOX=1&REC=1
Shows contents.;CISOBOX=1&REC=2
Shows contents.;CISOBOX=1&REC=3
Drug kit, showing contents:
A drug kit in a leather case, measuring 17.5 x 10 x 2 cm. Four flaps open to reveal two rows of ten metal vial clips. The case contains fifteen glass vials with metal screw tops, each with a blue label with white lettering. Two loose labels are set into the case.;CISOBOX=1&REC=8
Drug kit, showing contents:
Drug kit in a dark brown folding leather case. The case has two rows of leather loops for vials, and contains 27 glass vials of various sizes. Most are labelled as to the contents and have cork stoppers. Both the case and vials are in good condition.
Metal syringe with case.
Syringe kit in a black leather case. The case is lined with purple velvet and silk, and measures 16 x 6.5 x 3 cm. The metal syringe has a glass barrel, and three accompanying needles of various sizes.
Misc. surgical instruments.
A collection of miscellaneous surgical instruments donated by John C. Brougher, M.D., in February 1976. The items are all in good condition. The collection includes: 1) uterine tenaculum, 2) gallstone scoop, 3) gallstone probe, 4) post-nasal forceps, marked "BF17 Germany," 5) perineum needle, marked "HOV," 6) perineum needle, manufactured by Sklar, 7) pedicle needle, manufactured by Sklar, 8) foreign body forceps, 9) knife and dissector, manufactured by Haslam, 10) rubber and metal penis clamp, manufactured by Bard, 11) esophageal dilators, stored in the hollow metal instrument handle, 12) nasal tampon forceps, manufactured by Penn S.M. Co., 13) chrome forceps, 14) catheter, and 15) ligature needle.;CISOBOX=1&REC=2
Razor case.
Gillette razor kit containing several pieces inside a black leatherette case lined with purple velvet. The Gillette logo and slogan are imprinted in gold on the inside upper half of the case. The case measures 9.6 cm x 4.5 cm x 1.4 cm. The case holds: a brass razor handle (7.8 cm) and brass head piece (4 cm), a two-piece brass razor case (4.7 cm), and three wrapped packages of double-edged blades.;CISOBOX=1&REC=1
Post cautery.
A Post electric cautery in a case, measuring 24.5 x 9.8 x 7.7 cm. The black leatherette case is lined with maroon flannel and has a black button-snap fastener. The case is fitted with a removable instrument tray, and contains: 1) a curved knife with Bakelite handle, sliding sleeve, and connector cord, 2) insulated cylindrical heat guard with metal ring, 3) porcelain resting block, 4) printed brochure describing the instrument, 5) printed directions for use, and 6) printed directions for use of heat shield and porcelain block.;CISOBOX=1&REC=3
Signature stamp.
 GM, 513 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 5 Nov 2007
at 14:53
Superhet radios
On the Bob and Tom Show, a 93 year old granny mentioned something I hadn't heard of and I had to research and share. She said as a little girl, they listened to the superheterodyne.

In electronics, the superheterodyne receiver (also known by its full name, the supersonic heterodyne receiver, or by the abbreviated form superhet) is a technique for selectively recovering the information from radio waves of a particular frequency. It is used in radio and television receivers and transmitters in order to tune them to a particular frequency.

The superheterodyne principle was originally conceived in 1918 by Edwin Armstrong during World War I as a means of overcoming the deficiencies of early vacuum triodes used as high-frequency amplifiers in radio direction finding (RDF) equipment. In a triode RF amplifier, if both the plate and grid are connected to resonant circuits tuned to the same frequency, stray capacitive coupling between the grid and the plate will cause the amplifier to go into oscillation if the stage gain is much more than unity. In early designs dozens of low-gain triode stages sometimes had to be connected in cascade to make workable designs, which drew enormous amounts of power in operation. However the strategic value was so high that British Admiralty felt it was money well spent.

Armstrong had realized that higher frequency equipment would allow them to detect enemy shipping much more effectively, but at the time no practical "short wave" (defined then as any frequency above 500 kHz) amplifier existed.

It had been noticed some time before that if a regenerative receiver was allowed to go into oscillation, other receivers nearby would suddenly start picking up stations on frequencies different from those they were actually transmitted on. Armstrong (and others) soon realized that this was caused by a "supersonic" heterodyne (or beat) between the station's carrier frequency and the oscillator frequency. For example, if a station were transmitting on 300 kHz and the oscillator were set to 400 kHz, as well as the original 300 kHz, the same station would be also heard on 100 kHz and 700 kHz.

In a flash of insight, Armstrong suddenly realized that this was a potential solution to the "short wave" amplification problem. To monitor a frequency of 1500 kHz, he could set up an oscillator to, say, 1560 kHz, which would down-convert the signal to a 60 kHz carrier, which was far more amenable to high gain amplification using triodes.

The first superheterodyne circuits used the self-resonance of iron-cored interstage coupling transformers to filter the intermediate frequency, and this is why the Intermediate Frequency tuned circuits were still referred to as IF "transformers", long after they had been replaced by proper tunable coils. Early superhets used IFs as low as 20 kHz, which made them extremely susceptible to image frequency interference but at the time the main interest was sensitivity rather than selectivity.

Armstrong was able to put his ideas into practice quite quickly, and the technique was rapidly adopted by the military; however, it was less popular when radio broadcasting began in the 1920s, due both to the need for an extra tube for the oscillator, and the amount of technical knowledge required to operate it. For domestic radios, an alternative approach to Short Wave "Tuned RF" ("TRF") amplification called the Neutrodyne became more popular for reasons of simplicity and economy.

However, by the 1930s, improvements in vacuum tube technology rapidly eroded these advantages. First, the development of practical indirectly-heated cathodes allowed the mixer and oscillator functions to be combined in a single Pentode tube, in the so-called Autodyne mixer. This was rapidly followed by the introduction of low-cost multi-element tubes specifically designed for superheterodyne operation and by the mid-30s the TRF technique was rendered obsolete. Just about all radio receivers, including the receiver sections of television sets, now use the superheterodyne principle.

There is more, but it's pretty technical. (If that wasn't technical enough.)
 GM, 520 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Thu 29 Nov 2007
at 16:15
Immigration in the 1920's
An interesting tidbit in the news:

Immigration over the past seven years was the highest for any seven-year period in U.S. history, bringing 10.3 million new immigrants, more than half of them without legal status, according to an analysis of census data released by the Center for Immigration Studies in Washington.

One in eight people living in the United States is an immigrant, the survey found, for a total of 37.9 million people, the highest level since the 1920s.

The survey released Wednesday was conducted by Steven Camarota, director of research at the center, which advocates reduced immigration.

Camarota has been active in the national immigration debate.

Independent demographers disputed some of the survey's conclusions, but not Camarota's methods of data analysis.

Articles on the web:
 GM, 524 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Fri 28 Dec 2007
at 14:22
Ancient pyramid found in central Mexico City
It's not the Pyramid of the Moon, but an interesting story nonetheless.

News images gallery:
'Plaza de las Tres Culturas' or the plaza of the three cultures.

Ancient pyramid found in central Mexico City

By Miguel Angel Gutierrez - Thu Dec 27, 10:40 PM ET

MEXICO CITY (Reuters) - Archeologists have discovered the ruins of an 800-year-old Aztec pyramid in the heart of the Mexican capital that could show the ancient city is at least a century older than previously thought.

Mexican archeologists found the ruins, which are about 36 feet high, in the central Tlatelolco area, once a major religious and political centre for the Aztec elite.

Since the discovery of another pyramid at the site 15 years ago, historians have thought Tlatelolco was founded by the Aztecs in 1325, the same year as the twin city of Tenochtitlan nearby, the capital of the Aztec empire, which the Spanish razed in 1521 to found Mexico City, conquering the Aztecs.

The pyramid, found last month as part of an investigation begun in August, could have been built in 1100 or 1200, signaling the Aztecs began to develop their civilization in the mountains of central Mexico earlier than believed.

"We have found the stairs of this, much older pyramid. The (Aztec) timeline is going to need to be revised," archaeologist Patricia Ledesma said at the site on Thursday.

Tlatelolco, visited by thousands of tourists for its pre-Hispanic ruins and colonial-era Spanish church and convent, is also infamous for the 1968 massacre of leftist students by state security forces there, days before Mexico hosted the Olympic Games.

Ledesma and the archaeological group's coordinator, Salvador Guilliem, said they will continue to dig and study the area next year to get a better idea of the pyramid's size and age.

The archeologists also have detected a sculpture that could be of the Aztec rain god Tlaloc, or of the god of the sky and earth Tezcatlipoca.

In addition, the dig has turned up five skulls and a series of rooms near the pyramid that could date from 1431.

"What we hope to find soon should tell us much more about the society of Tlatelolco," said Ledesma.

Mexico City is littered with pre-Hispanic ruins. In August, archeologists in the city's crime-ridden Iztapalapa district unearthed what they believe may be the main pyramid of Tenochtitlan.

The Aztecs, a warlike and religious people who built monumental works and are credited with inventing chocolate, ruled an empire stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean and encompassing much of modern-day central Mexico.

(Editing by Xavier Briand)

More information about Mexican prehistory.

This message was last edited by the GM at 20:29, Wed 07 Jan 2009.

 GM, 531 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 8 Sep 2008
at 12:43
Attack Wing: Glider Makes Waves With Stealth and Speed
Modern day Rocket Ranger,2933,352477,00.html
Attack Wing: Glider Makes Waves With Stealth and Speed,4644,3818,00.html

It weighs only 30 pounds and can be fully weaponized for assault and rescue. It has a 6-foot jet-wing that is steered with handheld rotary controls connected to its rudder. And it can hide more than 100 pounds of combat gear in a built-in compartment.

The Gryphon attack glider, designed to penetrate combat zones at 135 miles per hour, could revolutionize the art of parachuting. It has got to be at the top of James Bond’s Christmas list this year.

A vision straight out of "Batman," the carbon-fiber stealth glider quadruples the speed of similar craft — and there are quite a few special forces soldiers who would like to jump out of a plane at 30,000 feet and give it a whirl.

Its helmet has a heads-up display and provides on-board oxygen for the jump. To land, a soldier separates the wing from his pack and releases his parachute to slow his descent. The wing remains attached to the soldier by a cord and lands before him.

You might wonder who would volunteer to test-pilot a glider traveling at such high speeds. At ISNR London, a security conference, I had the opportunity to meet Erich Jelitko, who not only conceived the ultimate boy toy but also enthusiastically test-pilots the glider.

A former special forces operator and German army paratrooper instructor, Jelitko has made more than 50 jumps with the glider.

He took me through a test flight of a simulation of Paris. He demonstrated the glider’s agility by flying through the legs of the Eiffel Tower — not an easy feat at high speed. Soldiers also can opt to train on other city simulations from New York to London.

Currently, planes and pilots are put at risk because soldiers need to jump close to combat areas. Typical high altitude, high-opening, or HAHO, jumps from around 27,000 feet allow soldiers to travel only about 30 miles after exiting the aircraft.

The Gryphon could increase that range fourfold, creating an attack corridor of nearly 125 miles. Unaffected by headwinds or crosswinds because of its favorable lift-to-drag ratio, the glider would allow elite units to reach targets with increased speed, precision and stealth.

The Gryphon’s built-in oxygen supply system allows soldiers to jump from up to 30,000 feet. And with temperatures at that altitude sometimes reaching minus 64 degrees Fahrenheit, every second counts. Even in upwind conditions, the Gryphon could reduce HAHO jump duration to a third, from an average of 45 minutes to just 15, vastly reducing the risk of exposure to extreme cold.

The Gryphon’s designers, SPELCO GbR, are even planning to affix a relatively cheap and small turbo jet, which is used for unmanned military drones. Harnessing that jet, the glider would allow soldiers to jump lower, maintain altitude and travel farther than is currently possible.

With its stealth technology and high speed, the Gryphon will provide maximum surprise and safer entry into target areas. And with the Gryphon virtually invisible to ground and airborne radar, enemy forces would struggle even to detect it.

The stealth and speed capabilities also could be handy for agile hostage rescue operations and rapid reaction to moving targets. SPELCO is developing an electronic system to automate some of the steering to make it easier to fly, more like an airplane. If it succeeds, the average bungee jumper — and not just elite forces with specialized training — can have a go, too.

And those commercially available Gryphons could mean that friendly neighborhood Batmen might be just around the corner.
 GM, 532 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 8 Sep 2008
at 12:45
More 1920s resource material:
More 1920s resource material:

1920 attire

Flappers - a little pricey

Cute little flapper

Children's flapper clothing

Flapper makeup ideas

Makeup Steps for a Twenties Flapper Look
Cleanse & Moisturize

Foundation: Pale peaches and cream shades were popular at this time. *
Also apply to lips!
Rouge: Apply deep rose or berry shade to the apples of your cheeks. Do not blend.
Eyebrows: Darken as thin and long as possible
Eyeliner: Thick line around entire eye and smudge
Eyeshadow: Light shadow on lid and Dark shadow on brow bone. Smudge
Eyelashes: Curl Lashes and apply 3 coats of Mascara
Lips: Apply lipstick to pads of your thumbs and then apply the 2 thumb prints to top and bottom lip to create a cupids bow. Pencil line entire lip dreaded party lulls.

Hair style:
How to fingerwave:

More costumes

1920 Theme ideas for a party!!! Cool!

1920s radio network. Cool! 24/7 music
 GM, 533 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 8 Sep 2008
at 12:45
1920s cigarette information

And Chesterfield, with an unfiltered version brought out in 1912 that is still sold, is one of America's oldest brand names. From the 1920's through 1950's, Chesterfield vied for supremacy against brands including Camel, Lucky Strike and Old Gold.
Marlboro was first introduced to the public in the 1920s behind the theme “Mild as May”. The brand originally targeted a female audience through a series of ads in 1926 showing a feminine hand reaching for a cigarette. It faced trouble in the 1930s and attempted to rejuvenate itself with a clever advertising gimmick, changing the ivory tip to red in order not to smear ladies’ lipstick. During World War II, however, the brand again faltered and had to be taken off the market. Three brands, Camel, Lucky Strike and Chesterfields surfaced with a firm hold on consumers after the war.  All brands were consumed in abundance.
Tobacco companies began their search for new clients with the emergence of industrialization. Since cigarettes could be mass produced in large numbers, the tobacco industry needed to increase its market. In the 1920s tobacco companies began to promote brand name cigarettes.
Prior to this time, women's consumption of tobacco products was considered scandalous or low-class. But the 1920s was a decade of great social transformation: women were being recognized as a force to be reckoned with as they demanded social and civic equality. Slowly, public opinion on women's role in society began to change, and in this context the tobacco industry decided to expand aggressively.
The tobacco industry also exploits the fantasies and fears of women and adolescent girls. For example, some tobacco ads focus on women's desire to be thin and emphasize the "benefits" of smoking for weight control. In the 1920s, the slogan "Reach for a Lucky Instead of a Sweet" first linked smoking with slenderness. The association of Lucky Strike with keeping thin led to a 300% increase in sales in the first year of this advertising campaign. (5) This profitable image wedding tobacco consumption with a svelte figure continued in more contemporary campaigns: six years after the introduction of "Virginia Slims" (and other cigarettes especially designed for women), the number of adolescent girls who smoked had increased by 110%. (6)
As a direct result of the campaigns that began in the 1920s, the number of women smokers age 18 to 25 increased significantly. The highest rates of new tobacco consumers were among women age 18 to 21: their numbers tripled from 1911 to 1925 and tripled again in 1939.
History of Cigarettes.
In the 1920s, the wife of a tobacco company executive complained to her doctor about gaining weight; he told her to go smoke a cigarette. An advertising campaign based on this notion, suggested to women to "Reach for a Lucky instead of a Sweet". This was the beginning of smoking among women. Before the 1920's it was not "proper" for women to smoke.

1890 - 1920
Advertisement encouraged consumers to buy brand name products. An ad for Kellogg’s, the cereal maker, portrays an assertive woman telling her grocer: "Excuse me. I know what I want, and I want what I asked for, Toasted Corn Flakes. Good day."
The product itself remained at the center of advertisements.

1920 - 1929
The 1920s was the decade during which the phrase “Madison Avenue” was first used to describe the advertising industry and in which many products are sold because they hold out the promise of a more modern and freer life, filled with exciting opportunities to consumer new products.
Some ads stressed that ordinary Americans could have the same products as the rich and the socially prominent. Others described natural products are superior to artificial products. Many ads for cars and refrigerators treated these products as objects worthy of worship by surrounding them with halos. Invented characters like General Mills' Betty Crocker and Philip Morris's little bellhop, Johnny helped consumers establish a personal connection with a particular product.
In 1913 the newly independent R.J. Reynolds launched Camels, the "first modern cigarette." An innovative blend of burley and Turkish tobacco backed by a massive publicity campaign, Camels were quickly imitated by American's Lucky Strike and Liggett and Myers' revamped Chesterfield cigarettes (in 1926 Lorillard jumped in with its Old Gold brand). All three brands stressed their mildness and catered their appeal to men and women alike. Between them the three brands enjoyed 65 to 80 percent market share through the 1940s. The 1920s saw the "conversion" of many tobacco consumers to the cigarette in the Unites States, United Kingdom, Europe, China, and Japan. Between 1920 and 1930, U.S. cigarette consumption doubled to 1,370 cigarettes per capita.

1924  Philip Morris re-introduces MARLBORO as a ‘woman’s cigarette.’

1925  Only three brands, Camels, Chesterfield and Lucky Strike, sell 82% of all cigarettes, in great contrast to the cigar industry with many tens of thousands of brands sharing the pot.

1925  7,000 full and part time people are involved in cigar tobacco growing in Connecticut. More than 50% of tobacco was grown outdoors (as opposed to shade leaf) on small farms of 10 acres or less.

1925  Of the 3,300 cigar workers using automated machines, only 157 were men. Women who worked the machines were not well paid. Nearly 80% made less than $1000/year; 10% of the women made less than $5 a week, mostly in PA.

1925  POR LARRANAGA became the first Cuban factory to make machine made cigars for the lower price market. The addition of machines led to a boycott by factory workers.

 GM, 535 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 8 Sep 2008
at 12:46
Portal to Maya Underworld Found in Mexico

Portal to Maya Underworld Found in Mexico
Alexis Okeowo in México City
for National Geographic News

August 22, 2008
A labyrinth filled with stone temples and pyramids in 14 caves—some underwater—have been uncovered on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula, archaeologists announced last week.

The discovery has experts wondering whether Maya legend inspired the construction of the underground complex—or vice versa.

According to Maya myth, the souls of the dead had to follow a dog with night vision on a horrific and watery path and endure myriad challenges before they could rest in the afterlife.

In one of the recently found caves, researchers discovered a nearly 300-foot (90-meter) concrete road that ends at a column standing in front of a body of water.

"We have this pattern now of finding temples close to the water—or under the water, in this most recent case," said Guillermo de Anda, lead investigator at the research sites.

"These were probably made as part of a very elaborate ritual," de Anda said. "Everything is related to death, life, and human sacrifice."

Stretching south from southern Mexico, through Guatemala, and into northern Belize, the Maya culture had its heyday from about A.D. 250 to 900, when the civilization mysteriously collapsed.

(Read about the watery graves of the Maya in National Geographic magazine.)

Myth and Reality

Archaeologists excavating the temples and pyramids in the village of Tahtzibichen, in Mérida, the capital of Yucatán state, said the oldest item they found was a 1,900-year-old vessel. Other uncovered earthenware and sculptures dated to A.D. 750 to 850.

"There are stones, huge columns, and sculptures of priests in the caves," said de Anda, whose team has been working on the Yucatán Peninsula for six months.

"There are also human remains and ceramics," he said.

Researchers said the ancient legend—described in part in the sacred book Popul Vuh—tells of a tortuous journey through oozing blood, bats, and spiders, that souls had to make in order to reach Xibalba, the underworld.

"Caves are natural portals to other realms, which could have inspired the Mayan myth. They are related to darkness, to fright, and to monsters," de Anda said, adding that this does not contradict the theory that the myth inspired the temples.

William Saturno, a Maya expert at Boston University, believes the maze of temples was built after the story.

"I'm sure the myths came first, and the caves reaffirmed the broad time-and-space myths of the Mayans," he said.

Underworld Entrances

Saturno said the discovery of the temples underwater indicates the significant effort the Maya put into creating these portals.

In addition to plunging deep into the forest to reach the cave openings, Maya builders would have had to hold their breath and dive underwater to build some of the shrines and pyramids.

Other Maya underworld entrances have been discovered in jungles and aboveground caves in northern Guatemala Belize.

"They believed in a reality with many layers," Saturno said of the Maya. "The portal between life and where the dead go was important to them."
Capt. Richard Maxwell Drake
 player, 66 posts
 Steamship Captain
Mon 8 Sep 2008
at 12:48
Travel time and distance:
Important information to remember!

Travel time:
Distances from San Felipe and from Bahia San Luis on travel on the Princess.
The Princess has a full out speed of about 20km/hr, and a 15km/hr cruising speed.

From San Felipe to Guardian Angel Island would take just under fifteen hours. From Bahia San Luis to Guardian Angel Island would take just over six.

Under a day's travel, unless something goes wrong.
Chimalli Tonauac
 NPC, 94 posts
 Museum curator
 Guardian of statuettes
Mon 8 Sep 2008
at 17:36
Vizcaya Museum layout (not the authentic layout)
Reposting the Vizcaya Museum layout in the Resources Thread...
Keep in mind that the *real* museum doesn't have this layout.

Ground Floor

Main Floor

Upper Floor

This message was last edited by the player at 17:20, Wed 29 Oct 2014.