Resources.   Posted by GM.Group: 0
Nick Grant
 player, 20 posts
 To the skies!
Mon 15 Dec 2008
at 18:10
Research material on airships
The Airship Heritage Trust:
The Airship Heritage Trust was set up in 1985 by a group of dedicated enthusiasts and relatives of the original crew members. Over the last few years from its humble beginings the Trust has grown and worked very hard to where it is today, with it's membership of over 300 worldwide.

This site has some very interesting pages dealing with historic airships - not just containing pictures and details of when the ship was aloft, when it got lost in a storm, etc., but also interesting "life on a zeppelin" stuff such as times for watches and such.

A few of them:

R100 - G - FAAV
R101 - G - FAAW

From the main page, there is a link to many types of airships.

This message was last edited by the GM at 18:10, Mon 15 Dec 2008.

 GM, 537 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 15 Dec 2008
at 13:18
Here are some statistics for the Year 1908
Here are some statistics for the Year 1908:

The average life expectancy was 47 years.
Only 14 percent of the homes had a bathtub.
Only 8 percent of the homes had a telephone.
There were only 8,000 cars and only 144 miles of paved roads.
The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 mph.
The tallest structure in the world was the Eiffel Tower.
The average wage in 1908 was 22 cents per hour.
The average worker made between $200 and $400 per year.
A competent accountant could expect to earn $2000 per year, a dentist $2,500 per year, a veterinarian between $1,500 and $4,000 per year, and a mechanical engineer about $5,000 per year.
More than 95 percent of all births took place at HOME. Ninety percent of all doctors had NO COLLEGE EDUCATION! Instead, they at tended so-called medical schools, many of which were condemned in the press AND the government as "substandard."
Sugar cost four cents a pound.
Eggs were fourteen cents a dozen.
Coffee was fifteen cents a pound.
Most women only washed their hair once a month, and used Borax or egg yolks for shampoo.
Canada passed a law that prohibited poor people from entering into their country for any reason.

Five leading causes of death were:
1. Pneumonia and influenza
2. Tuberculosis
3. Diarrhea
4. Heart disease
5. Stroke

The American flag had 45 stars.
The population of Las Vegas, Nevada, was only 30!
Crossword puzzles, canned beer, and ice tea hadn't been invented yet.
There was no Mother's Day or Father's Day. Two out of every 10 adults couldn't read or write.
Only 6 percent of all Americans had graduated from high school.
Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were all available over the counter at the local corner drugstores. Back then pharmacists said, "Heroin clears the complexion, gives buoyancy to the mind, regulates the stomach and bowels, and is, in fact, a perfect guardian of health."
Eighteen percent of households had at least one full-time servant or domestic help.

There were about 230 reported murders in the ENTIRE U.S.A.!
Harold Stirling Vanderbilt
 NPC, 65 posts
 railroad executive
Mon 15 Dec 2008
at 18:09
Interesting links to photos and info from 1920s.
Female office workers in 1925.

10 Richest People of All Time and How They Made Their Fortunes
1. John D. Rockefeller
2. Andrew Carnegie
3. Nicholas II of Russia
4. William Henry Vanderbilt
5. Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII
6. Andrew W. Mellon
7. Henry Ford
8. Marcus Licinius Crassus
9. Basil II
10. Cornelius Vanderbilt

USS Florida (Battleship # 30, later BB-30), 1911-1931

USS Utah (Battleship # 31, later BB-31 and AG-16), 1911-1941

USS New York (Battleship # 34, later BB-34), 1914-1948

The Silent Generation...
people born between
1925 and 1945.
















This message was last edited by the player at 17:05, Wed 29 Oct 2014.

William Kissam Vanderbilt II
 player, 63 posts
 wealthy industrialist
 racing enthusiast
Mon 15 Dec 2008
at 17:51
Time: Monday, Aug. 03, 1925,9171,720660,00.html
Monday, Aug. 03, 1925

Married. Miss Muriel Vanderbilt, famed heiress, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William K. Vanderbilt, great-great-granddaughter of "Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt, to Frederic C. Church Jr. of Lowell, Mass., stock broker and onetime Harvard halfback. Though Miss Vanderbilt was brought up in the Catholic faith, they were married by Protestant clergymen. Her mother is a Catholic, her father an Episcopalian.

Married. Miss Esther F. Moody, missionary to China, grandniece of the late Dwight L. Moody,* and George W. Loos Jr., missionary to China; at

Sued for Separation. Hugh McQuillan, a right-handed pitcher for the New York National League Baseball Club, by Mrs. Nellie T. McQuillan; in Brooklyn. Said she: "Gay parties, women and intoxicants . . . brute . . . habitual drunkard . . . unfeeling sot . . . pleasure-bent, drunken carouser. . . ." (Pitcher McQuillan's professional record has not been good this year. Up to July 28 he had won 2 games for his club, lost 3.)

Died. Mickey Shannon,* (real name Howard Palmer), 25, Chicago light heavyweight pugilist; from a fall in the ring during a boxing match in Louisville with Harry Fay.

Died. Antonio Ascari, Italian automobile racer, "champion of Europe"; in Linas, France, of injuries received in a crash at the Grand Prix Auto Race.

Died. W. B. Jemmett, British miniature-painter and dandy; attempting to save a woman from drowning, at Biarritz.

Died. Diki Diki, 49, famed dwarf, 37 inches tall, weight 25 pounds; in Manila, P. I. His widow, also 37 inches tall, weighs five pounds less than he.

Died. Parker A. Henderson, Mayor of Miami, Fla., in Miami, of apoplexy.


Died. Princess Wanda zu Shönaich-Carolath, 77, onetime mother-in-law of Princess Hermine, wife of Wilhelm Hohenzollern; in Amititz, Germany.

Died. William Jennings Bryan, 65, "the great Commoner," thrice Presidential nominee of the Democratic party; in Dayton, Tenn., of apoplexy.

*Famed evangelist who founded the Northfield Seminary for Girls at Northfield, Mass., a boys' academy at Mount Hermon, Mass., the Moody Bible Institute at Chicago, training schools for religious workers. *Illfated name. Another Mickey Shannon, heavyweight, a few years ago met the same fate in a boxing match in Pittsburgh, with the now middleweight champion Harry Greb.

This message was last edited by the GM at 17:51, Mon 15 Dec 2008.

Al Capone
 NPC, 21 posts
 Chicago crime boss
Mon 15 Dec 2008
at 17:58
Key people in Capone's story


Parents: Gabriele (Gabriel); Theresa Raiola
Siblings (in order of birth): Vincenzo (Jimmy, later Richard Hart),
Raffalo (Ralph), Salvatore (Frank), [Al], Amadeo Ermino (John, nicknamed "Mimi"),
Umberto (Albert John), Matthew Nicholas (so baptized), Rosalia (Rose), Mafalda

PRINCIPAL MEMBERS OF HIS GANG (after he succeeded Johnny Torio)

Frank Nitti (Francesco Raffele Nitto) - second in command;
Jack Guzik - business manager, bag man;
Lawrence Mangano, Charley Fischetti (Capone cousin) - beer distribution;
Joe Fusco - liquor distribution; John Patton - brewery operations, political fixes;
Frank Pope, Anthony "Mops" Volpe - overall gambling operations;
Peter P. Penovich, Jr. - floating casinos;
James V. Mondi - oversaw independents;
Hyman "Loud Mouth" Levine; chief collector;
Duke Cooney - brothel operations;
George "Red" Barker, William J. "Three-Finger Jack" White,
Murray L. "The Camel" Humphreys - labor extortion;
"Machine Gun" Jack McGurn (Vincenzo Gibaldi), Frank Milano - chief gunmen
Frank Rio (Cline), Frank Maritote (Diamond), Phil D'Andrea - chief bodyguards
James Belcastro, Joseph Genero - bombs, explosives
Rising young stars: Sam "Golf Bag" Hunt; Anthony Accardo (Joe Batters),
Joseph Aiuppa (Joey O'Brien), Sam "Mooney" Giancana, Paul "The Waiter" Ricca


Charles Dion "Deany" O'Banion
   -succeeded by: Hymie Weiss (Earl Wojciechowski), Vincent "Schemer"
    Drucci (Di Ambrosio), George "Bugs" Moran;
   -Louis "Two-Gun" Alterie (Leland Verain), adjunct members: Samuel "Nails"
     Morton (Markowitz), Daniel J. "Dapper Dan" McCarthy, Maxie Eisen,
Genna Brothers: Samuel, James, Peter, Antonio, Michael, Angelo
Terrence J. Druggan, Frank Lake
William "Klondike" & Myles O'Donnell; Bernard (brother) (West Side)
   -James J. Doherty, Thomas "Red" Duffy, James "Fur" Sammons
Ralph Sheldon
   -Danny Stanton; John "Mitters" Foley
Joseph "Polack Joe" Saltis (actually born in Hungary, spelled his name "Soltis")
   -Frank McErlane
Edward J. "Spike" O'Donnell (far South Side)
   -brothers Walter, Thomas & Steven
Joseph Aiello
Claude "Screwy" Maddox
Martin Guilfoyle
Herschel Miller


William Hale "Big Bill" Thompson, Jr., William E. Dever (reformer),
Anton J. Cermak (corrupt)
   -Fred Lundin - political operative (Republican, Thompson's mentor)
   -George E. "Boss" Brennen - (Democratic Party boss)
Joseph Z. Klenha - corrupt mayor of Cicero
    -Edward G. Kovalinka - political boss, courted Capone's election help
John Patton - "Boy Mayor," suburban Burnham when Torrio came


Robert E. Crowe - State's Atty, Thompson ally, capable, equivocal honesty
William Harold McSwiggin - Crowe's star asst., murdered by mistake
Morgan A. Collins - honest police Captain, Dever made Chief
Metellus Lucullus Cicero Funkhauser - Morals Div. head, undercut by Thompson
 George E. "Q." Johnson - U.S. Attorney in Chicago
James H. "Shooey" Malone - arrested Capone in Philadelphia
Michael F. Malone - undercover work as Michael Lepito
Eliot Ness - Prohibition agent, head of special "Untouchables" squad
Michael J. Ryan - crooked police captain in Levee district
Max Nootbar - honest, replaced Ryan after scandal, exiled to sticks by Thompson
Edward J. O'Hare - key informer; murdered; father of "Butch" O'Hare (cf. airport)
Charles F. Rathbun - special prosecutor in death of Jake Lingle
Patrick J. Roche - star investigator of Treasury Dept's, Special Investigation Unit (SIU)
Michael Hughes - blowhard, ineffective chief of detectives; later chief under Thompson
William F. Russell - Hughes's replacement after scandal; Lingle's pal, doubtful honesty
Elmer L. Irey - head of SIU
Anthony L. Ruthy - cop who chased Lingle's killer, changed testimony, later murdered
William H. Shoemaker - honest cop, promoted by Dever, later chief of detectives
John Stege - tough, honest detective captain, later dep. chief
Len Small - corrupt governor of Illinois
Nels Tessem - dogged SIU agent; with Arthur P. Madden uncovered key evidence
James H. Wilkerson - judge at Capone contempt and tax trials
Frank J. Wilson - SIU agent, uncovered key evidence against Capone


James Clark (real name, Albert Kachellek)
Frank Gusenberg (survived briefly, died in hospital; wouldn't talk)
Peter Gusenberg (Pete's older brother; they were gang's muscle; Henry was due later)
John May
Reinhart H. Schwimmer (gang groupie, failed oculist)
Frank Snyder (Adam Heyer)
Albert R. Weinshank (probably mistaken for Moran by Capone's watchers)
Highball (May's Alsatian - only permanent survivor)

OTHERS (Alphabetic Order)

Michael J. Ahearn - Capone's lawyer, researcher, brief-writer; at tax trial
Salvatore "Samoots" Ammatuna - bagman for Gennas; briefly head of Unione, before Capone had him killed to make way for Tony Lombardo
Albert Anselmi - with Scalise, ace killer, lured from Gennas, then killed by Capone when they conspired with Guinta to betray him
Robert "Bobby" Barton - Jack Guzik's driver, lent to Torrio; driving when Torrio shot
Sylvester Barton - Bobby's brother, Capone's driver
Judge Bernard P. Basara - Crowe's candidate in '28 "Pineapple Primary"
Morris Becker - honest dry cleaner; enlisted Capone to fight extortion
James V. Bennett - Director of Prisons, sent Capone to Alcatraz
Anthony C. Berardi - newspaper photographer, Capone's favorite
Leo V. Brothers - cheap crook, framed for Lingle's murder
Herman M. Bundesen - Coroner, ran St. Valentine's inquest
Frederick R. "Killer" Burke - St. Valentine's suspect (unlikely)
Albert Francis "Sonny" Capone - Capone's son, later changed name
Mary "Mae" Coughlin Capone - Capone's wife
Ralph "Risky" Capone, Jr. - Capone's nephew; used "Gabriel" as last name; suicide
John J. "Bathhouse" Coughlin - crooked alderman of Levee district with Kenna
James M. Cox - Ohio publisher; '20 pres. candidate; Miami oligarch against Capone
Louis "Diamond Lou" Cowen - gnomish newsstand owner; Capone's bondsman
Anthony D'Andrea - election fight with Michael Powers showed gangs (before Beer Wars erupted) wisdom of Torrio's plan for gang cooperation.
James "Files" DeAmato - Capone's spy, told Capone of Yale's treachery; murdered
Sen. Charles S. Deneen - Crowe's opposition to his candidate sparked Pineapple Primary
Albert Fink - with Ahern, Capone's lawyer at tax trial; botched defense
Carl "Skip" Fisher - Miami oligarch
Arthur Finnegan - White Hand gang member in Brooklyn, beaten up by Capone
Frank Foster ("Frost," "Citro," Ferdinand Bruna) - Zuta's man; killer of Lingle
Frank "Galluch" Galluchio - petty thief, scarred Capone over insult to sister, Lena
Vincent Giblin - Capone lawyer in Miami
Joseph "Hop Toad" Guinta - briefly, Unione head; see Ansemi
Jacob I. Grossman - lead prosecutor in tax trial
Daniel Healy - detective who killed Vincent Drucci
Parker A. Henderson, Jr. - son of former Miami mayor, became Capone groupie
Peter B. Hoffman - corrupt Cook County (Chicago) sheriff
Joseph L. Howard - killed by Capone, personally, after beating Guzik, insulting Capone
James A. Johnston - warden of Alcatraz, interviewed Capone extensively
Michael "Hinky Dink" Kenna - see Bathhouse John Coughlin
Paul A. Labriola - killed by D'Andrea's men for loyalty to Alderman John Powers
Alfred J. "Jake" Lingle - Tribune legman; gang ties; murdered
Edward R. Litsinger - Sen. Deneen's candidate in Pineapple Primary
Frank J. Loesch - head of Crime Commission, asked Capone to police '28 election
Pasqualino "Patsy" Lolordo - Unione head, Capone friend, murdered by Aiello
Anthony Lombardo - same as Lolordo, but even closer to Capone
William "Wild Bill" Lovett - Brooklyn gang lieutenant, psychopathic killer intended to avenge Artie Finnegan's beating; reason Yale sent Capone to Chicago in 1919
John H. Lyle - honest but erratic judge; Thompson called him "nutty"
Samuel D. McCreary - Miami Director of Public Safety; after Capone at oligarchs' order
Daniel "Big Dan" Mahoney - Cox's son-in-law; directed Miami anti-Capone campaign
John J. Maritote - Mafalda Capone's husband, Frank Maritote's kid brother
Lawrence P. Mattingly - Torrio's, then Capone's tax lawyer; incompetent; wrote damning (by mistake) "Mattingly Letter" to IRS
Mike Merlo - strong Unione head; natural death cleared way for O'Banion murder
Thomas D. Nash - partner of Ahearn, courtroom wizard; mysteriously not at tax trial
Ted Newberry - walking to garage with Moran when Massacre occurred; later botched murder attempt on Zuta
David V. Omens - Capone's doctor
Kenneth Phillips - Miami doctor, signed phony affidavit in contempt case
John "Gianni Pauli" Powers - alderman in war with D'Andrea
Fred Ries - head cashier at Capone Casino, The Ship; key testimony at tax trial
Louise Rolfe - McGurn's mistress, "the Blonde Alibi"
Edward C. Romfh - Miami oligarch, banker, ex-mayor
John Sbarbaro - Asst. State's Atty, later judge; also undertaker for all gangs
Daniel A. Seritella - City Sealer; Capone pal
E. G. Sewell - Miami oligarch, ex-mayor
Jack Sewell - E. G.'s nephew, a Capone groupie
Billy Skidmore - bondsman Capone used before Lou Cowen
Manley Sullivan - petty crook in key Supreme Court decision: IRS could tax crime income
John A. Swanson - honest judge, involved in Pineapple Primary, murders of Lingle, Zuta
Edward D. Vogel - slot-machine king/pol in Cicero; opposed Torrio-Capone, then ally
Frankie Yale (Francesco Ioele, "Uale") - Capone's mentor in Brooklyn; killed Colosimo, O'Banion as favor; betrayed Capone, murdered
Jack Zuta - pimp, minor far North Side gang leader; had Lingle killed; murdered

This message was last edited by the player at 17:59, Mon 15 Dec 2008.

Capt. Frank McCloud
 player, 256 posts
 Veteran of the war
 Jack of all Trades
Mon 15 Dec 2008
at 18:01
The American Legion Founded in 1919
The American Legion Founded in 1919

While many of their fellow soldiers were slowly returning to the United States in the spring of 1919, on March 15-17 under the guidance of Theodore Roosevelt, some members of the World War I American Expeditionary Force still in Paris founded an organization of U.S. war veterans called the American Legion to provide for the care of the disabled and sick veterans, and to promote compensation and pensions for the disabled, widows, and orphans. Nonpolitical and nonsectarian, its membership requirement was honorable service and an honorable discharge.

Meanwhile Miami’s public spirited Mayor William Pruden Smith wanted to organize a servicemen’s club, and so invited all of the county’s veterans to a meeting on April 10. Evidently virtually every man in Dade County who had served in World War I turned out; including several of Miami’s most outstanding business men, and the organization was quickly incorporated as the “Dade County Veterans of the World War”.

Infantry Major Robert W. Ralston, the ranking officer from Miami, was elected to be the commander of the organization. And when the Dade County Veterans of the World War received word within a week of their incorporation of a national call to convene a Caucus in St. Louis to form a national organization of veterans, Major Ralston selected prominent Miami businessman Junius T. Wigginton, a captain of Miami’s company of infantry before it was sent overseas, to be their delegate. Short of money to make the trip, the founders of the Miami veteran’s organization floated a loan to send Wigginton to St. Louis, where he was one of the five Floridians in attendance at the founding of the American Legion.

The May 9, 1919 Caucus meeting in St. Louis adopted "The American Legion" as the organization's official name. The Legion's draft constitution was approved, and so was its preamble, which begins: "For God and Country, we associate ourselves together. . ." The preamble, with its heartfelt dedication to freedom and democracy, is still recited today at official gatherings of The American Legion.  On September 16, 1919 the U.S. Congress chartered the American Legion, and on November 10-12, 1919 the Legion convened its first annual convention in Minneapolis.

Miami’s American Legion on lower Biscayne Boulevard 1926

When Captain Junius T. Wigginton returned to Miami he suggested that Miami’s American Legion Post be named after the first man from Dade County to die in the world war. Although the Harvey Seeds Post was one of the first to be established in the United States and by right the first in Florida, when it finally received its charter, the Florida number was already up to 29.

Lacking a formal meeting place, the newly formed Legion Post met at the Miami Central School, the Chamber of Commerce, the courthouse and the YMCA. When the Armistice was signed, and most of Dade’s veterans were finally home, the Post’s first order of business was to commemorate their return with an explosive 4th of July 1919 holiday celebration. Orphans and underprivileged children were invited and with financial help from the Chamber of Commerce an impressive fireworks display was mounted in the first of what has become a proud annual tradition of the Post that is still celebrated today with generous financial assistance from the Upper Eastside Miami Council, the City of Miami, Miami-Dade County and local businesses and individuals.

With its membership growing to over 700, on February 2, 1926 the Post finally moved into its first real home, a new building on city property on Biscayne Boulevard and NE 8th Street. Even though Miami charged a nominal fee for the property, supporting the Post property cost money and the Legionnaires tried several ill-fated venues to raise funds, among them minstrel shows, and boxing bouts, none of which were financially successful. The Legion’s much needed financial angel came in the form of Doyle E. Carlton, Florida’s governor, who saved the day when he approved the Post as an official state automobile tag agency.
Arthur Davenport
 NPC, 36 posts
 Miami Herald
Mon 15 Dec 2008
at 18:07
Mayors of Miami
Mayors of Miami

Term   Mayor
1896-1900 John B. Reilly
1900-1903 J. E. Lemus
1903-1907 John Sewell
1907-1911 F.H. Wharton
1911-1912 S. Rodman Smith
1912-1913 J.W. Watson, Sr. (Acting)
1913-1915 J.W. Watson, Sr.
1915-1917 P.A. Henderson
1917-1919 J.W. Watson, Sr.
1919-1921 W.P. Smith
1921-1923 C.D. Leffler
1923-1925 P.A. Henderson - Mayor at the time of this story
1925-1927 Edward C. Romfh
1927-1929 E.G. Sewell
1929-1931 C.H. Reeder
1931-1933 R.B. Gautier
1933-1935 E.G. Sewell
1935-1937 A.D.H. Fossey
1937-1939 Robert R. Williams
1939-1940 E.G. Sewell

Henderson, Parker A. (d. 1925) — of Miami, Dade County (now Miami-Dade County), Fla. Mayor of Miami, Fla., 1915-17, 1923-25. Died in 1925 of apoplexy. Burial location unknown.

Romfh, Edward C. — of Miami, Dade County (now Miami-Dade County), Fla. Mayor of Miami, Fla., 1925-27. Presumed deceased. Burial location unknown.

Sewell, E. George (c.1875-1940) — of Miami, Dade County (now Miami-Dade County), Fla. Born in Hartwell, Hart County, Ga. Brother of John Sewell. Merchant; mayor of Miami, Fla., 1927-29, 1933-35, 1939-40; died in office 1940. Died April 2, 1940. Burial location unknown.

Reeder, C. H. — of Miami, Dade County (now Miami-Dade County), Fla. Mayor of Miami, Fla., 1929-31, 1941-43. Presumed deceased. Burial location unknown.
Ace Brigode
 NPC, 26 posts
 Band Leader
Tue 30 Dec 2008
at 19:39
Music of Ace Brigode
I was a well established recording artist before the time of the game.

b. c.1890s, USA, d. 3 February 1960, USA.
Ace Brigode's Virginians varied in size from 10 to 15 musicians and vocalists, including Fred Brohez, Happy Masefield, Gene Fogarty, Johnny Poston, Eddie Allen, Billy Hayes, Teddy King, Abe Lincoln, Don Juille, Dillion Ober, Cliff Gamet, Bud Lincoln, Al Tresize, Frank Skinner, Ray Welch, Ignaz Berber, Charlie Sexton, Bob Kinsley, Max Pitt and others.
As their name implied, they were formed in Charleston, West Virginia, in the early 20s, with Brigode leading the band on alto saxophone and clarinet. By the late 20s the Virginians had secured a recording contract with MCA Records, and the band played all the major ballrooms and hotels on coast to coast tours with frequent radio play on programmes such as The White Rose Gasoline Show and Jersey Cereal Show. Further releases on a multitude of labels, including Edison, Harmony, Columbia Records and OKeh Records, continued until the group effectively disbanded at the close of World War II.
After his final shows as a bandleader in Salt Lake City, Brigode then took a post as publicity and promotions manager for the Chippewa Lake Park hotel in Cleveland. When he died in 1960, there was a revival of his dance band's theme song, "Carry Me Back To Old Virginny".

Yes Sir, That's My Baby - Ace Brigode And His 14 Virginians
#10 hit released 10/24/25

Linger Awhile - Ace Brigode & His Ten Virginians - 1923
More - Ace Brigode & His Ten Virginians

Never Again - Ace Brigode & His Fourteen Virginians 04/04/24
Don't Mind the Rain - Ace Brigode & His Fourteen Virginians 04/04/24


New York, c. October 13, 1924 OK 40223, Par E-5342
Bye, Bye Baby
A Sun-Kist Cottage In California

New York, January 13, 1925
Alabamy New York Bound Col 282-D, Re G-8377
A Sun-Kist Cottage In California


New York, January 23, 1925
Ever-Lovin' Bee Ed 51496
In The Shade Of A Sheltering Tree

New York, February 20, 1925
Tokio Blues Ed 51511
I'll See You In My Dreams

New York, March 10, 1925
What A Smile Can Do Col 341-D
When I Think Of You

New York, March 25, 1925
Fooling Ed 51533
When I Think Of You

New York, c. April 24, 1925
My Sugar Cam 725, Lin 2338
Wondering Cam 726, Lin, 2337

New York, April 30, 1925
Sleeping Beauty's Wedding Col 385-D
Yes, Sir! That's My Baby -v2 Col 398-D, 3730

Note: Columbia 3730 as DENZA DANCE ORCHESTRA

New York, June 2, 1925
Wait’ll It's Moonlight Col 401-D, 3757
Make Those Naughty Eyes Behave

New York, July 15, 1925
Alone At Last Col 426-D
I'm Tired of Everything But You 3782

Note: Columbia 3782 as DENZA DANCE ORCHESTRA
 GM, 540 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 5 Jan 2009
at 22:18
The Impact of Technology on 1920s Life
The Impact of Technology on 1920s Life

World War I, "The war that would end all wars.", had ended by 1918; Europe was left in ruins physically, politically, and economically. The years following the most devastating war to take place prior to the 1920s, Europe would struggle with economic and political recovery, but not the United States. Left virtually unharmed by World War I, the United States was even able to experience a decade of peace and prosperity following such a disastrous war. Of the many reasons for America's prosperity, technology played one of the most vital parts in bringing the great economic and cultural prosperity that America experienced during the 1920s. New advancements, new discoveries, and new inventions improved American lives in many if not every conceivable way, but not without a few negative side-effects.

One of the first major inventions to become a national craze was the automobile. First developed with a combustion engine in 1896 by inventor Henry Ford, he later started the Ford Motor Company, which mass produced affordable automobiles known as the Model-T. Ford's Model-Ts became such an overwhelming success that he sold over 15 million Model-Ts by 1927 (Gordon and Gordon 77). By the end of the decade, there was almost one car per family in the United States (Bruce 80). As a result, the automobile became an increasingly important part of American lives. Workers no longer needed to live close to their workplace, instead they could live farther away and still arrive at their jobs with ease. Homemakers could run errands with greater convenience. The overall increase in productivity and efficiency left the American people with more time for entertainment and recreation. Families could visit relatives on a constant basis, even distant relatives. The automobile provided a perfect way for people, especially for adolescents, to socialize and make merry. The automobile craze even came to a point where the back seat of a car replaced the parlor as a place for courtship and love (Gordon and Gordon 58).

The popularity of the automobile also brought immense economic prosperity. One of the major contributions to the prosperity of the 1920s was the construction of roads and highways, which poured fresh public funds into the economy (Bruce 79). Automobiles appeared everywhere and were being driven everywhere. However a major problem was experienced by everyone as a result of this. According to Kenneth Bruce:

"...there were very few good roads outside the east coast; crossing the continent was a real adventure, as during the spring when the snow melted or after a good rain storm, automobiles would sink into gumbo mud up to their hubs. Travelers crossing Iowa or Nebraska were often forced to wait several days until the road dried before moving onto the next town. ..." (79)

In 1924, the Federal Road Act offered federal money to state legislatures, which would organize highway departments and match federal funds. Spurred on by this federal money, every section of the country launched ambitious road building programs during the 1920s. By the end of the decade, highway construction programs employed more men and spent more money than any single private industry. The increased use of automobiles touched every corner of the American economy. It stimulated the oil industry, it boosted road construction, extended the 1920s housing boom to suburbs, and even developed new businesses (Bruce 79-80).

The success of the Ford Motor Company was so great that it can even be compared to that of today's Microsoft. And like today's Bill Gates, Ford and his Ford Motor Company had become a national symbol of industrial prosperity. By 1922, Ford, who earned over $264,000 a day, was declared a billionaire by the Associated Press (Gordon and Gordon 32). Luckily for the federal government, Ford paid a record $2,467,946 in income taxes for the prosperous year of 1924 (Gordon and Gordon 50). According to Elizabeth Stevenson:

"... Nothing ever dramatized the system of factory organization so well as the break in Ford automobile production stretching across a good part of the year 1927. Ford was the epitome of everything in the world of everyday work that the citizens of the 1920s admired. His faults were overlooked or accepted as virtues, and his success in this great mechanical and business venture seemed a test of the health of the nation itself. The public found itself absorbed, entertained, and delighted by such toys as Model-Ts and Model-As. If Ford should fail, they all in some measure failed. But anticipation was joyous. Even the suspense was delicious, it would be a misunderstanding to think that it was all a matter of sober self-interest, that this man would again bring about the car that suited at the price that was right. ..." (190)
Evidently Stevenson was not the only person to feel this way. Bruce even said that Ford was the high priest of mass production, which people of the world saw to be more important than any ideological doctrine as the industrial miracle-maker to the curse of world poverty. (80)

The combination of an increase in American recreation and the advent of the automobile helped to bring about the success of the movie industry. Early movie attendance was fairly low due to the sparse distribution of movie theaters. But as automobiles became more popular, transportation became less of a hassle, and consequently movie attendance soared with the increase of automobile sales. With comical performances by comedian, Charlie Chaplin, dramatic performances by sex symbol, Rudolph Valentino, and many other famous actors, the movie industry was able to attract a massive audience of loyal viewers, even during the years of silent black-and-white films. Later in 1922, improvements in sound recording technology enabled the filming and broadcasting of the first movie ever made with sound, "The Jazz Singer" starring Al Jolson. And finally in 1926, the advent of Technicolor enabled the creation and broadcasting of movies with not only sound but with color also. Consequently, the movie industry became a major part of American industry in general. In 1927 alone, over 14,500 movie theaters throughout the nation showed over 400 films a year each, as movies became America's favorite form of entertainment (Gordon and Gordon 68). As the movie industry grew, so did the salaries of actors. In 1924, John Barrymore's contract with Warner Brother's reached $76,250 per picture, plus $7,625 over seven weeks, and all expenses paid (Gordon and Gordon 50). The trend of increasing salaries continued throughout the decade. However, after the advent of sound in movies, many actors were fired because of their poor voices, inabilities to memorize lines, or even their inabilities to speak English. But those who still continued to act experienced remarkable salary increases. Greta Garbo's salary rose from $350 a week to $5000 a week at MGM and football star, Red Grange, was paid a stunning $300,000 per picture (Gordon and Gordon 68); while the average American worker earned around a mere $2,000 annually. The advent of certain technologies helped to bring about the immense success of the movie industry; a success that would persist even to this very day.

The automobile was certainly one of the greatest crazes of the 1920s, but it was not the greatest. An invention of smaller dimensions, lower cost, and with the same abilities to bring people together spurred on the greatest craze of the 1920s. The radio became an instant success among the American public. Being substantially cheaper than a car, the radio became a part of virtually every home in America in only a few short years. Following the startup of the first public radio broadcasting station, KDKA, in Pittsburgh, thousands more broadcasting stations pop up all over the country in the next few years. Radio instantly became a national obsession; many people would stay up half the night listening to concerts, sermons, "Red Menace" news, and sports. Those without home radios gathered around crystal sets in public places (Gordon and Gordon 32). The advent of public radio allowed listeners to not only keep up with national issues and events, it also allowed listeners to experience new ideas, new entertainment, and to form opinions on matters that had never been publicized to a national degree. The radios in thousands of homes linked people in simultaneous enjoyment and excitement (Stevenson 150). According to Stevenson:

"... The mechanical inventions of the day were keeping up with the events. Radio not only reported the events but shaped them. Radio strengthened a tendency already working to make the people of the United States feel united and whole; for the first time, it seemed as if they could have thoughts and feelings simultaneously. For certain individuals this was comforting and strengthening. It had the effect of making people wish to have simultaneous sensations. ..." (114)

"... There was a tendency upon the part of a whole population to become amused spectators at events. The hobby of radio listening encouraged the tendency, but the set of mind was a new thing, a feeling that one's country and one's self were exempt from unpleasant consequences. What happened happened to other peoples and other individuals, mostly other kinds of countries and individuals. One lived, one lived indeed well, and had a predictable kind of success, and the tragedies and comedies of life were performed as in a show. ..." (154)

With the benefits of the radio also came many negative side effects. For example, those who spent a lot of time listening to the radio became very idealistic, and some even experienced difficulties discerning reality from "radio reality". As Stevenson quoted, "The hobby of radio listening encouraged a tendency, ..., a feeling that one's country and one's self were exempt from unpleasant consequences.", which demonstrated that people of the 1920s only saw the "good" in life and were ignorant of the "bad". Radio advertisements quickly followed the outburst of radio popularity. And according to Stevenson, radio advertising did not help the American public to become more open-minded. Take the following passage from Stevenson's The American 1920s:

"... Advertising was false in promising more than the seller delivered to the buyer, but it was false in seeming to be a world to which real life must bring itself to relation. It was false to particular American life and it was false to particular human nature in its blindness, narrowness, its smoothing away of individual corners and all inconvenient or tragic exultations or despairs. It was so persuasive a surface, so willingly adjusted to by many people that it was like a lowered, limited horizon. Strong emotions and fierce beliefs were stoppered down so that when they burst forth they rushed out with violence and exaggeration. ..." (151)

The false advertising of radio advertisements helped to create a sense of ignorance among most Americans towards anything unpleasant. Even though radio had brought the nation together as a whole, it also had the unfortunate side effect of making people of the 1920s more close-minded, ignorant, and disillusioned. Perhaps it was the sense of denial and false-hope created by radio that made America so mentally unprepared for the Great Stock Market Crash and the Great Depression.

The car and the radio were not the only inventions to penetrate into the consumer market. Ford's methods of mass production and efficiency enabled factories to produce a plethora of diverse consumer appliances ranging from dish-washers to electric toasters. As a result of World War I, production in American factories had been overhauled to accommodate for wartime needs. And after the armistice, these factories had to either mass produce other goods besides munitions or fire workers, so they turned to the world-wide market of consumer goods. American demands for consumer goods sky-rocketed during the 1920s, not only because of post-war demands but of American indulgence in luxury and convenience. The primary reason why Americans bought so many household appliances was to simplify everyday tasks such as dish-washing or cutting grass, so that they could spend more time with their families or on entertainment. Like the domino effect that took place with the boom of the automobile industry, demand for consumer goods spurred the growth of various other industries and increased demand for labor, which consequently increased worker wages. In fact, wages increased were up 33 percent from prewar periods even after being adjusted for inflation (Gordon and Gordon 86). In order to accommodate for the labor shortages, factories began to mechanize small tasks to cut back on labor requirements. Simple tasks such as packaging and cleaning of parts and tools which were once handled by people were handed over to faster and more efficient machines.

The standardization of the assembly line process further increased factory efficiency. Instead of having workers move around to select tools, tools were brought the workers by means of conveyor belts or movable storage units. The massive resource requirements of factories and household appliances stimulated the growth of utilities industries like never before. Electricity and plumbing became a standard in American homes. As a result of the massive growth of the consumer goods market, the national economy was greatly strengthened, but a harmful side-effect also resulted. The specialization of labor tasks in factories decreased the need for skilled workers, since workers were only required to do a few tasks many times instead of doing many tasks a few times.

Scientific advancements during the 1920s was not confined to only industrial technologies, health and medicine advanced greatly during the same time period. Surprisingly, a post-war interest developed in nutrition, caloric consumption, and physical vitality (Gordon and Gordon 14). This crusade for health was lead primarily by the "Flappers", liberal and out-going women, of the 1920s. A Flapper was often described as a women who "bobbed her hair, concealed her forehead, flattened her chest, hid her waist, dieted away her hips and kept her legs in plain sight (Noggle 161)." The Flapper's focus on "dieting away her hips" lead her to increase consumption of vegetables and fruits while decreasing consumption of meats and fats. With the rise in popularity of the Flapper, came a significant change in the dietary habits of Americans as a whole. Coincidentally, the discovery of vitamins and their effects also happened around the same time. Herbert McLean Evans discovered Vitamin E, and its anti-sterility properties in 1920. Elmer V. McCollum discovered Vitamin D, its presence in cod liver, and its ability to prevent rickets, a skeletal disorder, in 1920. Vitamins A, B, C, K, and various subtypes of each were also discovered during the 1920s. Through radio broadcasts, the public learned of the benefits of consuming foods with high nutritional values, and thus a generation of health fanatics was started. However, this was very ironic because cigarette consumption rose to roughly 43 billion annually (Gordon and Gordon 23) and bootleg liquor became a $3.5 billion a year business during the same time period (Gordon and Gordon 68). While pursuing a pure goal of excellent health, the American people failed to realize the harm that cigarettes and liquor had wrought upon them.

The prosperity that America experienced during the 1920s seemed like it would last forever. There were virtually no signs of economic depression; wages were at an all time high, the Dow Jones Industrial Stock Index never stopped increasing, everyone indulged in luxuries and entertainment, and there was always a general atmosphere of hope and promise for the future. Life was easy and convenient thanks to the many technological advances that took place during the 1920s. Who would have thought that it would all come to an end on October 24, 1929 and that a decade of despair and depression would follow such an age of happiness and prosperity.

Cited Works
Bruce, Kenneth YOWSAH! YOWSAH! YOWSAH! The Roaring Twenties.
     Belmont California: Star Publishing Company, 1981.

Bunch, Bryan and Alexander Helkmans The Time Tables of Technology.
     New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1993.

Gordon, Lois, and Alan Gordon American Chronicle.
     Tennessee: Kingsport Press, Inc., 1987.

Noggle, Burl Into the Twenties.
     Urbana Chicago Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1974.

Sloat, Warren 1929 America Before the Crash.
     New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1979.

Stevenson, Elizabeth The American 1920s.
     New York: The Macmillan Company, 1962.
 GM, 541 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 5 Jan 2009
at 22:22

By Loretta Lorance

On today's homefront very little thought is given to throwing a load of laundry into the machine, stacking the dishes into the dishwasher and quickly running the vacuum before jumping into the car for a quick trip to the store to pick up dinner. Washing machines, dishwashers, vacuums, automobiles and numerous other machines are more or less givens as accessories to contemporary life. Of course, some people do not possess these accouterments, but, most can be rented or used at commercial facilities. Whether they are owned or let, the power to operate these various machines is obligingly available. At the end of the 20th century, these types of machines and the power to run them have become integral parts of modern life.

So entwined have mechanical devices become with modern life that the not so distant past, before they were established as necessary adjuncts to it, is often viewed with nostalgia and gratitude for the lessons learned during the preceding centuries of drudgery. In a Darwinian view of the history of household technology it is easy to accept that today's home has naturally benefitted form the progress of science and technology.1 And, if the path of this progression were traced, the beginnings would be found long before the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution. However, if the interest were the point of conjunction between the home, technology and readily available energy, it would be found in the 1920s.

On the corners of this 1920s intersection between the home, technology and readily available energy stand the housewife, domestic servants and household appliances. As technology produced more opportunities for women in industry and business, less were willing to spend long hours working for low wages as domestic servants.2 Correspondingly, those who were willing to serve as domestics were in a position to demand better wages. Middle-class housewives, whose budgets could not accommodate the increase in the cost of domestic help, would be more likely to purchase appliances to ease their own workload than wealthy woman who would probably purchase appliances for their servants to use. Numerous manually operated appliances were marketed before the 1920s, but, the rapid electrification of urban areas during that decade3 was complimented by increases in the types and availability of electric appliances which were much easier to use than the manual models.4 Electric appliances began to be championed as 'electric servants'5 that would make housework less strenuous and less time consuming while being more efficient and more manageable than traditional domestic servants.

To persuade housewives that their products would cleanly, safely, and efficiently decrease housework electric companies and appliance manufacturers utilized articles, expositions, women's magazines and advertisements as tools of propaganda. For example, in the second half of the 1920s the Electrical Development Association (EDA), an English organization, began to heavily promote the development of the British domestic market6 through a variety of advertisements emphasizing the rewards reaped by housewives who used electricity. One 1928 ad featured a fashionably dressed woman leaving to play golf during the day because, as the caption insists, she was 'no longer tied down by housework' since she 'spring cleans with electricity' which was readily available 'at the flip of a switch.'7 The meaning here is obvious: the use of electricity will allow the housewife to keep her home clean, her appearance neat, and enjoy leisure activities even if she can no longer rely on hired help. In an earlier ad from the American Corporation General Electric, the 1917 The Lamp that Lights the Way to Lighter Housework featuring the Edison Mazda lamp, electricity was promoted as a way for the housewife to carry out her duties, such as washing, ironing, toasting and vacuuming, in a well lit environment with the aid of her agreeable and competent electric servants.8

Not only would electricity benefit the housewife by easing her work load and solving her servant problem, it would do so in a safe and healthy manner. This was another argument posed to increase the appeal of electricity to housewives. For example, a 1927 EDA poster was carefully composed to communicate this exact message. Bright white and rising triumphantly in the center of a dense black background is an athletic figure holding a globe in its raised right hand. Looping from the bottom of the globe and held up by the figure's left hand is a 'cord' that curves down to a power station within a white silhouetted skyline extending across the width of the poster. Dramatically positioned under the skyline in commanding white text is the caption that boldly advises: "For Health's Sake Use Electricity." 9

The promotion of electricity as safe, clean, and efficient served to emphasize the disadvantages of using its competitors, coal and gas. The use of coal, which must be carefully tended and emits a grimy soot when burned, was limited to fireplaces and stoves. The heavily polluted skies of 19th century cities are legendary, but rarely are the thick air and sooty surfaces of homes heated with coal addressed.10 Gas, coal gas in the 19th century and natural gas in the 20th, is more flexible since pipes to supply it can be installed throughout walls and floors. But, coal gas, which is made from carbonized coal, had an unpleasant odor and was somewhat unsafe. If a gas appliance was not completely turned off, or, if a pilot light went out, the resulting build-up of gas could lead to an explosion. Furthermore, the exposed flame of a gas light could start a fire. Electricity, on the other hand was espoused as clean, invisible, odorless, flexible and tireless. At any time one simply flips a switch or inserts a plug to have an unlimited and convenient source of energy. The primary disadvantage to the use of electricity is the availability of outlets. This is, however, a potentially easy problem to remedy. In the 1920s magazines such as Building Age and Electrical World featured articles concerned with ways to include the optimal number outlets in a house to provide the housewife with ample opportunities to use appliances. 11

Therefore, by the 1920s the use of electricity was promoted as the perfect way to ease the drudgery of housework without reliance on servants. Electricity was unlike coal which both required constant tending and produced soot and in preference to gas which was less safe. Praise and promise were heaped upon electricity, electric appliances and their capacity to improve the lot of the housewife. Emil Rathenau, a German industrialist who was a leader in the development of the electrical industry in Europe, thought that electric light would be like a little man, a helper of the housewife. Rathenau also advocated that the use of electricity would help to bring housewife out of the hidden darkness of the household.12 Similarly, in 1895 Thomas Edison, the inventor of the incandescent light bulb who founded the first distribution center of electricity in Manhattan in 1881, claimed that "technology will give less attention to the home because the home will need less: [the housewife] will be rather a domestic engineer than a domestic laborer, with the greatest of handmaidens, electricity at her service."13

Rathenau's and Edison's visions of the freedom that electricity could bring the housewife were echoed by exhibition organizers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.14 For example, at the 1893 Columbia World's Fair in Chicago numerous international models of electric appliances were exhibited in the Electricity Building. In addition, an electric kitchen was also exhibited at the Fair.15 Beginning in 1908 The Daily Mail, an English newspaper, sponsored an annual 'Ideal Home' exhibition featuring improvements and innovations in housing design and household technology.16 Appliances were essential to the Daily Mail's concept of the 'Ideal Home' and manufacturers used the expositions as opportunities to simultaneously plug known appliances and introduce new products. According to Deborah Ryan, this combination of the status quo with the promise of invention demonstrated that an 'Ideal Home' was only attainable in theory, not practice. Ryan writes:
From 1923 onwards, the Ideal Home Exhibition...concentrated on the presentation of a constantly evolving and progressing new commercial culture of home-making. In effect, the modern housewife could never achieve her 'ideal home,' because technology was constantly improving; each ideal was surpassed by another. Each Ideal Home Exhibition promised to surpass the previous one with its labour-saving innovations and the promise of improvement.17

Still, in the late 1920s, numerous electric appliances were available to assist the housewife in her quest for the ideal home. Manufacturers aggressively advertised these products. The ads usually featured one or more time- and labor-saving products in combination with the image of a relaxed housewife effortlessly using an appliance. An English division of General Electric, Magnet Household Appliances, drew upon both the notion of the 'Ideal Home' and the advantage of using electric appliances in its 1927 ad campaign entitled 'Miss Magnet's Ideal Home.' Cheerfully using an electric iron, 'Miss Magnet' is surrounded by the full range of available electric appliances: waffle iron, toaster oven, toaster, vacuum, stove, light, fan, cream separator, and washing machine. The text expounds "the advantages secured by the use" of these products: The Home where comfort, convenience and economy are ensured by the use of 'Magnet' Household Electric Appliances.

Where cooking is hygienic, uniform and economical; where cleaning is an easy and pleasant job, but thorough and complete; where ample heating, clean, smokeless, fumeless is always available.18 Although this ad was ostensibly selling appliances, subtly included was the message that the magic of electricity made it all possible. In their quest to convince women of the benefits provided by electricity and to increase revenues, electric companies began to offer advice and assistance to housewives in the late 1920s. In 1928 the need for electric companies to educate housewives about the virtues of electricity was explicitly explained by Sophia Malicki:
A utility company should be the community household management center. It should answer the plea of housewives for a place to which they can turn for advice and assistance on problems of efficient management of the home...The fact that women need to place a higher value on their energy and time brings a direct responsibility to the utilities for a liberal portion of education in standards of health and decency. Our services supersede the largest portion of drudgery in housekeeping, and ours the blame if so many women are still doing physically work for which machinery is developed. This is a social problem and ours is a fault chiefly of omission. 19

One approach to remedying the need to educate housewives was to sponsor courses in 'electrical equipment economics' which were intended to teach women the use and benefits of appliances.20 A second strategy was to establish women's councils on electricity such as the Electrical Association of Women in Great Britain and the Women's Committee of the National Electric Light Association in the United States. The motivating factor behind these tactics was to increase profits by increasing the domestic use of electricity. Electric companies understood that housewives would willingly consume more kilowatts if they were convinced of the rewards gained by using the tools run by electricity.21 And, housewives would more often use these tools if they could confidently and efficiently operate them. In addition, housewives would be more eager to learn about these tools if the tools would help bolster their self-images as modern, self-sufficient women who now summoned 'electric servants' to help them manage their homes.22 Therefore, by expanding the domestic market in the 1920s, electric companies could help offset the cost of urban electrification and ensure continued income by convincing housewives that electricity and electrical appliances were necessary tools for modern living.

So convincing was this argument that by the late 1920s the image of the 'Ideal Home' was determined more by the number of appliances and gadgets that were in it than by its design. This has prompted some 20th century historians to find more significance in the effect that appliances have had on homes than in changes in the design of the house. For example, Adrian Forty wrote in The Electric Home, 1975, that "the principal change in the home environment this century has not occurred through the improvements in architecture or building standards, but as a result of the equipment that has become available for people to put in their homes."23

Although such an argument might seem apparent to a historian in the 1970s, it was not a consideration to the majority of architects working in the 1920s. At that time the primary consideration was to change the physical characteristics of a house to make a better living environment rather than to make a better working environment for the housewife. A comparison of the designs for two innovative houses from the late 1920s, Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye and Buckminster Fuller's Dymaxion House, will clarify this point. Le Corbusier was a Swiss architect who practiced in France and is credited as one of the founders of the International Style of architecture. The Villa Savoye, 1928-31, is considered to be an early masterpiece of Corbusier's since it is a textbook example of his five points of architecture: free facade, free plan, ribbon windows, pilotis, and roof garden. Fuller, an American inventor and designer, adapted some of these for his 1928-29 Dymaxion House: free facade, living quarters lifted one story above the ground, and recreational use of the roof.

Corbusier used the space under the house to provide quarters for the servants and to enhance circulation whereas Fuller thought this an ideal place to park the family's vehicle. Corbusier and Fuller shared the idea that standardized, pre-fabricated and mass-produced components should be used in the construction of their houses. Corbusier used these to design his ideal of a modern house that was based on the orthogonal model. Fuller used these elements to design his ideal of a modern house with an unusual design: a hexagonal donut supported by a inflated central mast and stabilized with cables.

In addition, because Fuller recognized that a house is not only the place to which a man returns after work, but is also the place where a housewife spends most of her time, he included an unusual complement of appliances in his ideal home which he understood would be cleaned and managed by the housewife, not servants. For example, the kitchen, which had "nothing to do with a servant," included a dishwasher, an oven and cooking grills with keys, not burners into which food could fall. To save space as well as time, shelving was designed to revolve and bring stored items to the person desiring them. Fuller also incorporated a complete laundry system that would wash and dry clothing in 3 minutes. There was also a central ventilating unit that was intended to circulate air throughout the house and clean the incoming air to keep the interior dust free. This would eliminate one of the most mundane tasks: dusting. The central ventilating unit would additionally serve as an environmental control system to maintain an optimal temperature abolishing the need for bedclothes and to wash bedding. This was the explanation given for placing the nude doll on the bed in the model of the house: to show that the temperature was perfect.24 However, the doll could have been a promotional device to show how carefree and relaxing life in a Dymaxion House would be for the housewife since Fuller specifically stated he included the appliances "to ease the drudgery of the housewife." 25

Despite the claims made by Fuller, the Dymaxion House was never advanced beyond the model stage. There are a number of reasons given for this which include that it was technologically impossible to manufacture the house in the 1920s and that the design was too weird, too futurist.26 In theory, however, Fuller's idea of including appliances as part of the house was not at all farfetched since paradigms for many of the appliances he stipulated were already considered standard home equipment by the late 1920s. This is verified by the itemized list of the 7 to 11 electric appliances commonly found in homes James Ryan published in October 1929. These were: washing machines; vacuum cleaners; refrigerators; flat irons; toasters; curling irons; percolators; heating pads; corn poppers; vibrators; and manglers (regardless of the name these were used to iron sheets).27

Ryan's list demonstrates that by the late 1920s electric companies and the manufacturers of electric appliances were successful in convincing women that their products would lessen the burden of housework. They were successful because these products do make housework easier. Washing machines eliminate the need to boil water, use a scrub board and hand-wring clothes. Dryers remove the back-straining chore of hanging up wet laundry to dry. Electric irons stay warm and do not require constant shuffling back and forth from the stove in order to keep them hot. Refrigerators prevent the need to make daily trips to the market and also the need to salt or smoke meats to preserve them. Vacuum cleaners are more efficient than brooms; they also eliminate the excessive manual labor of beating the dust and dirt out of rugs. The Hoover Company capitalized on this early in its advertising campaigns. One 1924 ad shows an elegantly dressed and bejeweled lady daintily manipulating a capable vacuum with her right hand while her left holds the machine's cord. The graphics reinforce the machine's efficiency: directly under the vacuum is black text that has just been cleaned. On either side of this is dull gray text awaiting the gentle sweeping action of the vacuum's brushes.28 Such advertisements may have been a little overzealous in their claims, but, they were correct in asserting that household appliances make housework less strenuous.

Unfortunately, these appliances have eased the drudgery of one type of household labor only to find it replaced by another: the role of family chauffeur. Of course, it can be argued that being in a car going places is less confining that being inside a house cleaning. This argument does overlook the fact that driving family members to their different activities is still performing duties, still giving service to someone else. This change from house-bound service to car-bound service was noticed very early in the drive to make electric appliances a part of every household. Wilma Cary used this as the plot for her 1928 prize winning essay, Modern Revelation, written for the National Electric Light Association, a commercial organization in the United States.29 Cary pits the old fashioned housewife, Joyce, who does not yet have electric appliances against her new neighbor, Mrs. Stuart, who is always running off with the children in the family car. Joyce believes that Mrs. Stuart must be a terrible housekeeper until Joyce visits her neighbor one day. During this visit Joyce discovers that Mrs. Stuart's secret is household appliances. With the assistance of these 'electric servants' Mrs. Stuart is able to keep her house spotless, the laundry washed and ironed, and take her children on daily excursions. After having completed all these chores, Mrs. Stuart can still make a delicious dinner for her husband on her electric stove. Amazing! Joyce sees the light and decides to persuade her husband to purchase these appliances for her to make her life easier and more enjoyable.30

The argument of Ruth Schwartz Cowan's 1983 book More Work for Mother provides a different perspective for interpreting A Modern Revelation. Although Joyce may have been correct in her assessment that Mrs. Stuart's appliances eased her housework, Joyce was not as accurate in thinking of Mrs. Stuart's use of the car as increasing her freedom. Schwartz Cowan has shown that when the time devoted to chauffeuring family members is factored into the amount of time a woman spends on housework there is very little difference between the total for a woman in the 1920s and her late 20th century counterpart.31

Yet, electric companies and appliance manufacturers could not anticipate the effect that the automobile would have on family life. In the 1920s electricity and household appliances were forms of technology intended to ease the burden of housework within the home. So successful were these electric servants that they came to be considered necessary parts of modern life, both as it was and as it was envisioned. This explains why Buckminster Fuller included them in his 1920s interpretation of the ideal home, the Dymaxion House. He also somewhat prophetically brought the family vehicle into the realm of the home by conveniently providing space for it under the house. The car, however, is one form of technology that extends the family sphere beyond the confines of the home. As a result, electricity and electrical appliances may have lessened the labor of cleaning a house, doing laundry and feeding a family, but, the car has prevented any decrease in the amount of time a housewife is required to devote to caring for her family.

This message was last edited by the GM at 22:23, Mon 05 Jan 2009.

 GM, 542 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 5 Jan 2009
at 22:27
Science & Technology in the 1920's

Diabetes: Killer Disease until the 1920's (1921)

In 1921, two researchers from Canada, Frederick Grant Banting (1891 - 1941) and Charles Herbert Best (1899 - 1978), made an incredible discovery - insulin. This hormone is very important because it regulates blood sugar levels in the human body. Persons suffering from diabetes are unable to maintain safe levels and are at risk of comas and death. After the discovery of insulin, however, it was found that injections of the hormone and a well-controlled diet could help people to lead a regular lifestyle.

Banting was later knighted in 1934 and became Sir Frederick Grant Banting. Sadly, on his way to England in 1941, he was killed in a plane crash.

Albert Einstein is Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics (1921)

Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955) was born on March 14, 1879, in Germany. In 1905, Einstein published his theory of relativity in "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies." Among his other publications included The Meaning of Relativity. His research eventually earned him worldwide fame and a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921.

Despite the fact that he was born in Germany, he woulSd not stay in his mother country forever. Einstein, who was a patent clerk and Jewish, immigrated to the U.S. in 1933 after Adolf Hitler seized control of Germany. In the U.S. he taught at Princeton University in New Jersey. In 1939, Einstein helped to inform Franklin Roosevelt, then President of the U.S., that Germany was possibly creating atomic weapons. The Advisory Committee on Uranium was created and the Manhattan Project, as the plan to develop atomic bombs was code-named, went into effect.

Vitamin E (1922)

In 1922, two American scientists, Dr. Herbert McLean Evans and K.S. Bishop discovered vitamin E (named by Evans). This discovery was an important one. Vitamin E serves as an antioxidant and is found in foods such as margarine, peanut oil, sunflower seeds, walnuts, and several others. It protects body tissue and polyunsaturated fats from oxidation. Gladys Anderson Emerson (1903 - 1984), another American scientist, would later go on to isolate the vitamin in pure form.

Tutankhamen's Tomb is Found (1922)

On November 4, 1922, an English archaeologist and Egyptologist named Howard Carter (1873-1939) and Egyptologist George Herbert (Lord Carnarvon) found the long-sought grave of Tutankhamen or Tutankhamun (1343 - 1325 B.C.) The body of the 18-year old king and his treasure were uncovered after more than 3000 years. Popularly known as the "boy-king" or "King Tut," Tutankhamen is believed to have become king at age eight or nine.

The Arrival of the Baby Austin (1922)

Herbert Austin (1866 - 1941) was born in England on November 8, 1866. His credits include creating the first Wolseley motor car (1895) and the Austin Motor Company (1905). In 1922, Austin introduced the Austin Seven in Great Britain. The "Baby Austin," as it was nicknamed, allowed several consumers who were previously unable to afford cars to buy one. The car featured four cylinders, a three-speed gearbox, and seated four. Five years prior to his death, Austin gave Lord Rutherford of the Cavendish Laboratory £250,000 for scientific research. Austin died on May 23, 1941.

The British Broadcasting Company (BBC) is Created (1922)

In October of 1922, the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) was created for the public. Because promotions were restricted, money was earned from people who purchased annual wireless licenses. In December of 1926, the BBC became a public corporation after receiving a Royal Charter. The first television broadcast to the public was made by this company in 1929. The BBC has had world-wide influence on radio and television and is still active today.

Innovations in Immunization (1923)
The medical field added another accomplishment to its existence during the 1920's. Diphtheria, caused by bacteria, became better controlled in 1923 by newly introduced immunization. Within a year, Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin of France would create Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), a vaccine against TB.

Clarence Birdseye and Frozen Food (1925)

Clarence Birdseye (1886 - 1956), a naturalist, developed a way of freezing food while maintaining its flavor and nutritional benefits. The frozen foods, packaged in rectangular-shaped containers, became quite handy.

He came upon his discovery while working near the Arctic for the American government. Birdseye found that immediately frozen meat kept its flavor. Creating a business in 1922, Birdseye Seafoods, Inc., he further improved his discovery. His new findings were used to create another company, the General Seafood Corporation. Despite Birdseye's death on October 8, 1956, Birds Eye remained in business and is still functioning today.

The Scopes Trial (1925)

During the 1920's, a courtroom case in the United States changed the public's view of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution forever. This particular trial would also be the first-ever to be broadcast live on radio.

In 1925, a Tennessee biology teacher named John Thomas Scopes was put on trial for teaching evolution. In the previous two years, Tennessee had been among several states in the U.S. to have fundamentalists propose laws to make teaching evolution illegal. The American Civil Liberties Union, with Clarence Seward Darrow (1857 - 1938) as its lawyer decided to defend Scopes. On the opposing side, William Jennings Bryan fought for Tennessee and against evolution in the classroom. Despite the fact that Scopes eventually lost a trial that he never testified at and was charged $100.00, Darrow was seen as the superior lawyer. Bryan, a three-time presidential candidate was humiliated and outsmarted. Only five days after the trial had ended, Bryan passed away. The outcome of the "Monkey Trial" was later changed; a technicality was found.

John Baird Introduces His Television (1926)

John Logie Baird (1888 – 1946), a Scottish engineer, held several jobs throughout his lifetime: shoe shiner, salesman, and electrical engineer. His most appreciated accomplishment, however, is not a clean shoe. It is the Baird Televisor: the first working system of television. While developing his invention, the founder of the Television Development Company became a pioneer when he transmitted the image of a boy in action. In 1926, Baird displayed his breakthrough creation in London at the Royal Institution. Within two years, he would also become the first person to transmit images to and from London and New York. These were not the Scot’s only contributions, however. He also created the stereoscopic television, electrical recordings (of images), and the color television.

The first American to transmit pictures of a moving object was Charles Francis Jenkins. He accomplished this feat in 1927.

Penicillin is Discovered (1928)

In the summer of 1928, Alexander Fleming (1881 - 1955), a British scientist, discovered green and yellow mold on a culture plate of Staphylococcus bacterium. This discovery would eventually earn Fleming and two other scientists, chemist Ernst Boris Chain and pathologist Howard Walter Florey, a Nobel prize in 1945. In 1944, King George VI had knighted Fleming.

What was all the commotion behind green and yellow mold? The mold that Fleming discovered growing on a left-out culture plate had eliminated some of the Staphylococcus. Afterwards, he isolated Penicillin notatum and cultivated it, finding that the mold was deadly to other bacteria as well. Alexander Fleming had discovered the world's first antibiotic.

In 1929, Fleming published a report on penicillin and its antibacterial characteristics. Aside from the discovery, Fleming did not continue work on the antibiotic. Two other scientists, Ernst Chain and Howard Florey, however, went on to purify penicillin for medical purposes. Their advances would rescue the lives of servicemen fighting in World War II.

Sir Alexander Fleming was born on August 6, 1881, in Ayrshire, Scotland. He studied at Saint Mary's Hospital Medical School and graduated in 1908. Previous to Fleming's discovery, his research had included attempts at slowing and stopping infections. At the time of his find, the scientist had been working with Staphylococcus bacterium, trying to reproduce the works of another researcher. Fleming died of a heart attack on March 11, 1955, in London.

Quick Facts
• The public is able to hear radio broadcasting for the first time. (1920)
• In Italy, the first highway is established. (1924)
• The very first motor hotel or motel, Motel Inn, is opened in the state of California. (1925)
• The first water resistant watch was created in Switzerland. (1926)
• Robert Hutchings Goddard (1882 - 1945) of the U.S. becomes the first person to launch a liquid-fuel rocket. (1926)
• Henry Ford (1863 - 1947) makes the Model A, a new car, available on the market. (1927)
• Edwin Powell Hubble (1889 - 1953) introduces Hubble's law.
(1929) • Albert Szent-Györgyi (1893 - 1986) isolates vitamin C. He later received the Nobel prize in 1937 for physiology or medicine. (1928)
• Kodak introduces 16mm color film. (1929)
 GM, 543 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Mon 5 Jan 2009
at 22:37
20th Century - the technology, science, and inventions

20th Century - the technology, science, and inventions

The zeppelin invented by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin.
Charles Seeberger redesigned Jesse Reno's escalator and invented the modern escalator.

King Camp Gillette invents the double-edged safety razor.
The first radio receiver, successfully received a radio transmission.
Hubert Booth invents a compact and modern vacuum cleaner.

Willis Carrier invents the air conditioner.
The lie detector or polygraph machine is invented by James Mackenzie.
The birth of the Teddy Bear.
George Claude invented neon light.

Edward Binney and Harold Smith co-invent crayons.
Bottle-making machinery invented by Michael J. Owens.
The Wright brothers invent the first gas motored and manned airplane.
Mary Anderson invents windshield wipers.
William Coolidge invents ductile tungsten used in lightbulbs.

Teabags invented by Thomas Suillivan.
Benjamin Holt invents a tractor.
John A Fleming invents a vacuum diode or Fleming valve.

Albert Einstein published the Theory of Relativity and made famous the equation, E = mc2.
Mary Anderson receives a patent for windshield wipers.

William Kellogg invents Cornflakes.
Lewis Nixon invents the first sonar like device.
Lee Deforest invents electronic amplifying tube (triode).

Leo Baekeland invents the first synthetic plastic called Bakelite.
Color photography invented by Auguste and Louis Lumiere.
The very first piloted helicopter was invented by Paul Cornu.

The gyrocompass invented by Elmer A. Sperry.
Cellophane invented by Jacques E. Brandenberger.
Model T first sold.
J W Geiger and W Müller invent the geiger counter.
Fritz Haber invents the Haber Process for making artificial nitrates.[/liu]

Instant coffee invented by G. Washington.

Thomas Edison demonstrated the first talking motion picture.
Georges Claude displayed the first neon lamp to the public on December 11, 1910, in Paris.

Charles Franklin Kettering invents the first automobile electrical ignition system.

Motorized movie cameras invented, replaced hand-cranked cameras.
The first tank patented by Australian inventor De La Mole.
Clarence Crane created Life Savers candy in 1912.

The crossword puzzle invented by Arthur Wynne.
The Merck Chemical Company patented, what is now know as, ecstasy.
Mary Phelps Jacob invents the bra.
Gideon Sundback invented the modern zipper.

Garrett A. Morgan invents the Morgan gas mask.

Eugene Sullivan and William Taylor co-invented Pyrex in New York City.

Radio tuners invented, that received different stations.
Stainless steel invented by Henry Brearly.

Gideon Sundback patented the modern zipper (not the first zipper).

The superheterodyne radio circuit invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong. Today, every radio or television set uses this invention.
Charles Jung invented fortune cookies.

The pop-up toaster invented by Charles Strite.
Short-wave radio invented.
The flip-flop circuit invented.
The arc welder invented.

The tommy gun patented by John T Thompson.
The Band-Aid (pronounced 'ban-'dade) invented by Earle Dickson.
The public is able to hear radio broadcasting for the first time.

Artificial life begins -- the first robot built.
John Larson invented the lie detector.
Albert Einstein is Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics

Insulin invented by Sir Frederick Grant Banting.
The first 3-D movie (spectacles with one red and one green lens) is released.
American scientists, Dr. Herbert McLean Evans and K.S. Bishop discovered vitamin E (named by Evans).
Air conditioning with downward supply in Grauman's Metropolitan Theater, Los Angeles.

Garrett A. Morgan invents a traffic signal.
The television or iconoscope (cathode-ray tube) invented by Vladimir Kosma Zworykin.
John Harwood invented the self-winding watch.
Clarence Birdseye (1886 - 1956), invents frozen food.
Diphtheria, caused by bacteria, became better controlled in 1923 by newly introduced immunization.  Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin of France created Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), a vaccine against TB.

The dynamic loudspeaker invented by Rice and Kellogg.
Notebooks with spiral bindings invented.
In Italy, the first highway is established.

The mechanical television a precursor to the modern television, invented by John Logie Baird.
The very first motor hotel or motel, Motel Inn, is opened in the state of California.
Five million cars mass produced.

Robert H. Goddard (1882 - 1945) of the U.S. invents liquid-fueled rockets.
The first water resistant watch was created in Switzerland.

Henry Ford (1863 - 1947) makes the Model A, a new car, available on the market.
Eduard Haas III invents PEZ candy.
JWA Morrison invents the first quartz crystal watch.
Philo Taylor Farnsworth invents a complete electronic TV system.
Technicolor invented.
Erik Rotheim patents an aerosol can.
Warren Marrison developed the first quartz clock.
Philip Drinker invents the iron lung.
The first American to transmit pictures of a moving object was Charles Francis Jenkins.
The first pop-up toaster is designed in the U.S.

Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.
Bubble gum invented by Walter E. Diemer.
Jacob Schick patented the electric shaver.
Albert Szent-Györgyi (1893 - 1986) isolates vitamin C. He later received the Nobel prize in 1937 for physiology or medicine.
Fleming discovers penicillin, a cure for infections.

American, Paul Galvin invents the car radio.
Yo-Yo re-invented as an American fad.
Edwin Powell Hubble (1889 - 1953) introduces Hubble's law.
Kodak introduces 16mm color film.
Stock market crash on Wall Street.
Kitchens with continuous work surfaces.

This message was last edited by the GM at 19:27, Wed 21 Jan 2009.

 GM, 544 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Tue 6 Jan 2009
at 00:13
Miami Beach History - Historic Events Timeline: 1920's

Miami Beach History - Historic Events Timeline: 1900's-1920's

Year 1903
The Army Corps of Engineers dredge the first opening to the Atlantic Ocean, cutting through mangrove swamps at Government Cut. The project allows for a safer, more direct access to the port of Miami.

Year 1907
Collins extends his land to the north from 14th to 67th Street. He finds native plants which indicate fresh water on the island. His discovery leads him to plant avocados, fruits, and vegetables.

Year 1912
Miami businessmen, the Lummus Brothers, acquire 400 acres to the south of Collins, from 14th Street to Government Cut. They establish the Ocean Beach Reality Company. Their vision: to build a city fronting the ocean made up of modest single family residences.
Construction begins on Collins Canal.

Year 1913
Carl Fisher arrives in Miami Beach. He too has a vision for the island--a city existing in an of itself - not as an adjunct to the established city of Miami across the bay.
Fisher acquires the land between 14th and 19th Street; linking Lummus to the south and Collins to the north.
Collins constructs the Collins Bridge. The bridge connects Miami and Miami Beach; and is awarded the title of being "the longest wagon bridge in the world".
Joe's Stone Crab opens on Miami Beach.

Year 1914
The W.J. Brown Hotel, the first hotel on Miami Beach, open s for business.
Collins Avenue opens on the Beach and is the first paved road suitable for automobiles.
August 4, World War I begins.

Year 1915
On March 26, 1915, Collins Lummus, and Fisher consolidate their efforts and incorporate the Town of Miami Beach.
J.N. Lummus rallies the thirty-three registered voters on the Island and is elected the first mayor of Miami Beach.
Lummus sells his oceanfront property from 6th Street to 14th street to the city for $40,000. The land is dedicated as a public park and beach, to be named Lummus Park.
Fisher clears Lincoln Road out of a mangrove swap with the help of Rosie the Elephant.

Year 1916
The Lummus brothers offer free lots to anyone who promise to build homes on their land.
Fisher opens the Lincoln Hotel at the corner of Washington Avenue and Lincoln Road.

Year 1917
Miami Beach changes it's status from a town to a city.

Year 1918
Mac Arthur Causeway is completed connecting the mainland and 5th Street.

Year 1920
The Miami Beach land boom begins. Between 1920 and 1929 millionaires like Harvey Firestone, J.C. Penney, Harvey Stutz, Albert Champion, Frank Seiberling, and Rockwell LaGorce build mansions on the three-mile stretch of Collins Avenue know as "Millionaire's Row."
Fisher opens the Roman Pools and Casino at 22nd Street and the Ocean.
Fisher's trolley car system is completed linking the mainland and Miami Beach via the Mac Arthur Causeway.
The cities main arteries--5th St., Alton Rd, Collins Ave, Washington Ave, and Ocean Dr. are all suitable for automobile traffic.
Fisher's Flamingo Hotel opens at 15th St. and the Bay.
The Army Corps of Engineers begins construction of Star Island.

Year 1922
The Bayshore Golf Course is completed.

Year 1923
The Nautilus Hotels opens and the present site of Mount Sinai Hospital.

Year 1924
Fisher completes the LaGorce Golf Course, named after his friend, Rockwell LaGorce.

Year 1925
The Rooney Plaza Hotel is completed.
Construction begins on Espanola Way.

Year 1926
A severe hurricane strikes South Florida. Extreme flooding catches the Beach community by surprise and causes substantial loss of life and property damage.

Year 1927
The Million Dollar Pier is constructed at the southern tip of Miami Beach.
The Kennel Club opens at the southern tip of Miami beach.
Construction begins on the second City Hall at Drexel and Washington Ave. in South Beach.
Temple Beth David, the Beach's first Synagogue, opens at 3rd and Washington Ave.

Year 1929
Flamingo Park is acquired by the city and dedicated as a public facility.

Year 1930's
Miami Beach flourishes with a boom of art deco buildings.

Year 1930
Miami Beach Population: 6,500

Year 1935
Miami Beach Population: 13,350

This message was last edited by the GM at 00:17, Tue 06 Jan 2009.

 GM, 552 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Tue 6 Jan 2009
at 14:53
Radio technology
The Princess would have had 'ship to ship' radios installed, that handled short wave transmissions. Infer what you can from the articles below.
Neither walkie talkies or car radios are available yet. Not even the ones used by the military.

Charles David Herrold
In April 1909 Charles David Herrold, an electronics instructor in San Jose, California constructed a broadcasting station. It used spark gap technology, but modulated the carrier frequency with the human voice, and later music. The station "San Jose Calling" (there were no call letters), continued to eventually become today's KCBS in San Francisco. Herrold, the son of a Santa Clara Valley farmer, coined the terms "narrowcasting" and "broadcasting", respectively to identify transmissions destined for a single receiver such as that on board a ship, and those transmissions destined for a general audience. (The term "broadcasting" had been used in farming to define the tossing of seed in all directions.) Charles Herrold did not claim to be the first to transmit the human voice, but he claimed to be the first to conduct "broadcasting". To help the radio signal to spread in all directions, he designed some omnidirectional antennas, which he mounted on the rooftops of various buildings in San Jose. Herrold also claims to be the first broadcaster to accept advertising (he exchanged publicity for a local record store for records to play on his station), though this dubious honour usually is foisted on WEAF (1922).

RMS Titanic (April 2, 1912).In 1912, the RMS Titanic sank in the northern Atlantic Ocean. After this, wireless telegraphy using spark-gap transmitters quickly became universal on large ships. In 1913, the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea was convened and produced a treaty requiring shipboard radio stations to be manned 24 hours a day. A typical high-power spark gap was a rotating commutator with six to twelve contacts per wheel, nine inches (229 mm) to a foot wide, driven by about 2000 volts DC. As the gaps made and broke contact, the radio wave was audible as a tone in a crystal set. The telegraph key often directly made and broke the 2000 volt supply. One side of the spark gap was directly connected to the antenna. Receivers with thermionic valves became commonplace before spark-gap transmitters were replaced by continuous wave transmitters.

On March 8, 1916, Harold Power with his radio company American Radio and Research Company (AMRAD), broadcast the first continuous broadcast in the world from Tufts University under the call sign 1XE (it lasted 3 hours). The company later became the first to broadcast on a daily schedule, and the first to broadcast radio dance programs, university professor lectures, the weather, and bedtime stories.

Amateur radio operators are credited with the discovery of long distance communication in the shortwave bands. The first successful transatlantic testswere conducted by radio amateurs in December 1921 operating in the 200 meter mediumwave band, the shortest wavelength then available to amateurs. In 1922 hundreds of North American amateurs were heard in Europe at 200 meters and at least 20 North American amateurs heard amateur signals from Europe. The first two way communications between North American and Hawaiian amateurs began in 1922 at 200 meters. Although operation on wavelengths shorter than 200 meters was technically illegal (but tolerated as the authorities mistakenly believed at first that such frequencies were useless for commercial or military use), amateurs began to experiment with those wavelengths using newly available vacuum tubes shortly after World War I.

Extreme interference at the upper edge of the 150-200 meter band--the official wavelengths allocated to amateurs by the Second National Radio Conferencein 1923--forced amateurs to shift to shorter and shorter wavelengths; however, amateurs were limited by regulation to wavelengths longer than 150 meters. A few fortunate amateurs who obtained special permission for experimental communications below 150 meters completed hundreds of long distance two way contacts on 100 meters in 1923 including the first transatlantic two way contacts in November 1923, on 110 meters.

By 1924 many additional specially licensed amateurs were routinely making transoceanic contacts at distances of 6000 miles and more. On September 21, several amateurs in California completed two way contacts with an amateur in New Zealand. On October 19th, amateurs in New Zealand and England completed a 90 minute two way contact nearly half way around the world. On October 10th, three shortwave bands were officially made available to amateurs by the Third National Radio Conference, at 80, 40 and 20 meters. The 10 meter band was created by the Washington International Radiotelegraph Conference on November 25, 1927. The 15 meter band was opened to amateurs in the United States on May 1, 1952.

The first radio receiver/transmitter to be nick-named "Walkie-Talkie" was the backpacked Motorola SCR-300, created by an engineering team in 1940 at the Galvin Manufacturing Company (fore-runner of Motorola). The team consisted of Dan Noble, who conceived of the design using frequency modulation, Henryk Magnuski who was the principal RF engineer, Marion Bond, Lloyd Morris, and Bill Vogel.

From the earliest days of radio, enthusiasts had adapted domestic equipment to use in their cars. The commercial introduction of the fitted car radio came in the 1930s from the Galvin Manufacturing Corporation. Galvin Manufacturing was owned and operated by Paul V. Galvin and his brother Joseph E. Galvin. The Galvin brothers purchased a battery eliminator business in 1928 and the corporation’s first product was a battery eliminator that allowed vacuum tube battery-powered radios to run on standard household electric current (see also Rogers Majestic Batteryless Radio). In 1930, the Galvin Corporation introduced one of the first commercial car radios, the Motorola model 5T71, which sold for between $110 and $130 and could be installed in most popular automobiles. Founders Paul Galvin and Joe Galvin came up with the name 'Motorola' when his company started manufacturing car radios. A number of early companies making phonographs, radios, and other audio equipment in the early 20th century used the suffix "-ola," the most famous being Victrola; RCA made a "radiola"; there was also a company that made jukeboxes called Rock-Ola, and a film editing device called a Moviola. The Motorola prefix "motor-" was chosen because the company's initial focus was in automotive electronics.

In Germany Blaupunkt fitted their first radio to a Studebaker in 1932 and in the United Kingdom Crossley offered a factory fitted wireless in their 10 hp models from 1933.
 GM, 558 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Wed 7 Jan 2009
at 02:28
Vizcaya Museum
A gallery:

This is an aerial view of the grounds.
There is a small building on the south end of the property. Apart from the museum. This could be the residence area. And giving you the best of both worlds. Living on the property and allowing for a walk to and from the residence.
The Vizcaya Village:

There is also a pool, that the residents can enjoy (off hours of course.)

This is the rear steps of the garden. Beyond is the ocean.

This is a walking tour of the Vizcaya:
 GM, 566 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Wed 7 Jan 2009
at 20:17
Aztec flutes and whistles
Aztec spirit flutes:

Aztec flutes:

From a Hopi perspective, you may have heard of the legend of Kokopellie. If not, let me tell you about him. He has become a dominant figure in the Southwest. The humpback flute player has numerous reasons of how he came into existence. Being a Hopi descendant of the Gresewood Clan from my Grandmother's side of the family, I have heard many stories and legends. Kokopellie could bring rain to the Hopi rain crops in the middle of the desert, or bring fertility to the Hopi villages. Yet he lived over 3000 years ago, long before North America was titled that.

I believe Kokopellie was of Mayan, Aztec or Incan origins from what is now known as South America or Mexico. From there, Kokopellie brought his spiritual magic within himself, playing his chants with deep concentration. He was aware of our two worlds; the world in which we stand and the world of The Great Spirits.

As he traveled North to the four corners region of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah, the first people to recognize his gift was the Hopis, who he lived among as a spiritual deity.

According to Hopi folklore, his adventures did not end with the Hopi people. He moved throughout the four corners region, for Anaszi people began to leave his trademark along cliff and canyon walls dating back 3000 years ago.

Currently, in Hopi culture, they honor Kokopellie in a ceremony every other year to keep the universe in balance.

When Kokopellie appeared, he used a traditional 5-hole flute. Today, you will see mainstream flutists using the 6-hole flutes. The flutes have become a hand carvers work of art, usually made of Western Red Cedar. Each taking a week to create, each never the same, like twins. They can look alike, but carry on like people with their own personality and identities.

Today, you will come across flutes with 2 or 3 chambers. They will give you a sound of many flutes playing together. I've also encountered bone whistles made of eagle or wild turkey bones. They produce a high-pitched sound used during sun dances, powwows or spiritual callings.

Overall, I possess and utilize these musical instruments of prehistoric melodies, just as Kokopellie. As one of his children, or Kokopellies Flute Child.

With all respect to flute enthusiasts, I not only share my opinion, but what I believe. The Native American Flute brings pure and honest enlightenment to all walks of life.

The history of the flute will always remain a mystery, just as the stars and galaxies. This new millennium of mankind is here for now, but Kokopellie will remain with me throughout eternity.

This message was last edited by the GM at 17:07, Wed 29 Oct 2014.

 GM, 567 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Wed 7 Jan 2009
at 20:18
Aztec Whistles of Death
This might make an interesting twist in the story.,2933,373702,00.html#,4644,4428,00.html

Archaeologists Recreate Aztec 'Whistles of Death'
Tuesday, July 01, 2008

MEXICO CITY —  Scientists were fascinated by the ghostly find: a human skeleton buried in an Aztec temple with a clay, skull-shaped whistle in each bony hand.

But no one blew into the noisemakers for nearly 15 years.

When someone finally did, the shrill, windy screech made the spine tingle.

If death had a sound, this was it.

Roberto Velazquez believes the Aztecs played this mournful wail from the so-called Whistles of Death before they were sacrificed to the gods.

The 66-year-old mechanical engineer has devoted his career to recreating the sounds of his pre-Columbian ancestors, producing hundreds of replicas of whistles, flutes and wind instruments unearthed in Mexico's ruins.

For years, many archaeologists who uncovered ancient noisemakers dismissed them as toys. Museums relegated them to warehouses.

But while most studies and exhibits of ancient cultures focus on how they looked, Velazquez said the noisemakers provide a rare glimpse into how they sounded.

"We've been looking at our ancient culture as if they were deaf and mute," he said. "But I think all of this is tied closely to what they did, how they thought."

Velazquez is part of a growing field of study that includes archaeologists, musicians and historians. Medical doctors are interested too, believing the Aztecs may have used sound to treat illnesses.

Noisemakers made of clay, turkey feathers, sugar cane, frog skins and other natural materials were an integral part of pre-Columbian life, found at nearly every Mayan site.

The Aztecs sounded the low, foghorn hum of conch shells at the start of ceremonies and possibly during wars to communicate strategies. Hunters likely used animal-shaped ocarinas to produce throaty grunts that lured deer.

The modern-day archaeologists who came up with the term Whistles of Death believe they were meant to help the deceased journey into the underworld, while tribes are said to have emitted terrifying sounds to fend off enemies, much like high-tech crowd-control devices available today.

Experts also believe pre-Columbian tribes used some of the instruments to send the human brain into a dream state and treat certain illnesses. The ancient whistles could guide research into how rhythmic sounds alter heart rates and states of consciousness.

Among Velazquez's replicas are those that emit a strange cacophony so strong that their frequency nears the maximum range of human hearing.

Chronicles by Spanish priests from the 1500s described the Aztec and Mayan sounds as sad and doleful, although these may have been only what was played in their presence.

"My experience is that at least some pre-Hispanic sounds are more destructive than positive, others are highly trance-evocative," said Arnd Adje Both, an expert in pre-Hispanic music archaeology who was the first to blow the Whistles of Death found in the Aztec skeleton's hands. "Surely, sounds were used in all kind of cults, such as sacrificial ones, but also in healing ceremonies."

Sounds still play an important role in Mexican society. A cow bell announces the arrival of the garbage truck outside Mexico City homes. A trilling, tuneless flute heralds the knife sharpener's arrival. A whistle emitting cat meows says the lottery ticket seller is here.

But pre-Columbian instruments often end up in a warehouse, Velazquez said, "and I'm talking about museums around the world doing this, not just here."

That's changing, said Tomas Barrientos, director of the archaeology department at Del Valle University of Guatemala.

"Ten years ago, nothing was known about this," he said. "But with the opening up of museum collections and people's private collections, it's an area of research that is growing in importance."

Velazquez meticulously researches each noisemaker before replicating it. He travels across Mexico to examine newly unearthed wind instruments, some dating back to 400 B.C. and shaped like animals or deities. He studies reliefs and scans 500-year-old Spanish chronicles.

But making replicas is only part of the work. Then he has to figure out how to play them. He'll blow into some holes and plug others, or press the instrument to his lips and flutter his tongue. Sometimes he puts the noisemaker inside his mouth and blows, fluctuating the air from his lungs.

He experimented with one frog-shaped whistle for a year before discovering its inner croak.

Renowned archaeologist Paul Healy, who made an important discovery of Mayan instruments in Belize in the 1980s, said many of the originals still work.

"A couple of these instruments we found were broken, which was great because we could actually see the construction of them, the actual technology of building a sound chamber out of paper-thin clay," he said.

Still, their exact sounds will likely remain a mystery.

"When you blow into them, you still can get notes from them, so you could figure out what the range was," Healy said. "But what we don't have is sheet music to give us a more accurate picture of what it sounded like."
 GM, 588 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Sun 18 Jan 2009
at 15:19
USS Shenandoah Zeppelin
USS Shenandoah was the first of four United States Navy rigid airships. She was built from 1922 to 1923 at Lakehurst Naval Air Station, and first flew in September, 1923. She developed the Navy's experience with rigid airships, even making the first crossing of the North American continent by airship. On the 57th flight,[1] Shenandoah was torn apart in a squall line over Ohio in 1925.[2]

On 2 September 1925, Shenandoah departed Lakehurst on a promotional flight to the Midwest which would include flyovers of 40 cities and visits to state fairs. Testing of a new mooring mast at Dearborn, Michigan was included in the schedule. While passing through an area of thunderstorms and turbulence over Ohio early in the morning of the 3rd during its 57th flight,[1] the airship was torn apart and crashed in several pieces near Caldwell, Ohio. Shenandoah's commanding officer, Commander Zachary Lansdowne, and 13 other officers and men were killed. Those killed were:

LCDR Zachary Lansdowne, Commanding Officer, Greenville, Ohio
LCDR Lewis Hancock Jr., Executive Officer, Austin, Texas,
LT. Arthur Reginald Houghton, Watch Officer, Alston, Mass.
LT. JG Edgar William Sheppard, Engineering Officer, Washington D. C.
LT. John (Jack) Bullard Lawrence, Watch Officer, St. Paul, Minn.
CPO George Conrad Schnitzer, Radio Officer, Tuckertown, N. J
AMM1C James Albert Moore, Radio Generator, Savannah, Ga
AR1C Ralph Thomas Joffray, Rigger, St. Louis, Mo.
AMM1C Bartholomew (Bart) B. O'Sullivan, Lowell, Mass
CPO James William Cullinan, Binghamton, N. Y
CPO Everett Price Allen, Chief Rigger, St. Louis, Mo.
AMM Charles Harrison Broom, Tom’s River, N. J.
AMM Celestino P. Mazzuco, Murray Hill NJ
AMM William Howard Spratley, Venice, Ill.
Twenty-nine survivors succeeded in riding three sections of the airship to earth. The survivors were:
Louis E. Allely
LT. Joseph B. Anderson
G. W. Armour
LT. Charles E. Bauch
CBM Henry L.Boswell
CBM Arthur E. Carlson
Warrant Officer Chief Gunner CWO Raymond Cole
Lester Coleman
James E."Red" Collier
Mark Donovan
John J. Hahn
Col. Chalmers G. Hall
Chief Machinist CWO, Shine S. Halliburton
Thomas Hendley
Benjamin O. Hereth
Walter Johnson
Aviation Machinist's Mate Ralph Jones
MM2C Julius E. Malak
CPO Franklin E. Masters
ACR, Chief Rigger John.F. McCarthy
LT. Roland Mayer
ACR Frank L. Peckham
ACMM August C.Quernheim
LT. Walter T. Richardson (Naval Reserve, traveling as a civilian observer)
LCMDR Charles Emery Rosendahl
ACMM William A. Russell
AMM1c Joseph Shevlowitz
Charles Solar
CBM Frederick J. "Bull" Tobin

The fatal flight had been made under protest by Cmdr. Lansdowne (a native of Greenville, Ohio), who warned of the violent weather conditions which were prevalent in the area and common to Ohio in late summer. His pleas for a cancellation of the flight only led to a postponement. His superiors were keen to publicize airship technology, and justify the huge cost of the airship to the taxpayers, so publicity, rather than prudence won the day. This event was the trigger for Army Colonel Billy Mitchell to heavily criticize the leadership of both the Army and the Navy, leading directly to his court-martial for insubordination and the end of his military career.

The survival of the 29 survivors has been attributed to the fact that the airship contained helium,[citation needed] which does not react chemically with air. If hydrogen had been used, the ship probably would have burned - as the LZ 129 Hindenburg would twelve years later.[citation needed]

Shenandoah Elementary School and Shenandoah High School in Noble County, Ohio, where the crash occurred, is named in honor of the ship and crew. Its sports teams are nicknamed "The Zeps".

[1]A truck stop, Shenandoah Plaza, located in Old Washington, Ohio was built in the early 1970s in memory of the airship.
 GM, 589 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Sun 18 Jan 2009
at 15:26
MacMillan Expedition to northern Greenland
A Postal History Gallery of Related Events 1925

Roald Amundsen filled the role of Fridtjof Nansen as a "renowned polar celebrity". Because of his long years of success in the polar field, Norway issued this set of stamps (Scott 104-10) in 1925 to support his planned flight to the North Pole in two "Dornier Wal" seaplanes. The flight failed to reach its objective, but was an example of the role of aviation in future travel. About two hundred thousand sets were issued, of which a large percentage was used for postage by the public.

The MacMillan Expedition to northern Greenland carried three U.S. Navy amphibians, commanded by Lt. Richard E. Byrd. They made aerial surveys possible for the first time

Commander Donald MacMillan introduced wireless radio to Arctic exploration in 1925 . . . MacMillan approved every message transmitted on the new radio and his initials appeared on even the most routine messages.

MacMillan maintained radio contact with Commander Richard Byrd who led the air survey of Greenland from the S.S. PEARY in 1925.

The first wireless radio was carried to the Arctic on this voyage, however the leader required that all messages would be approved by himself or his second in command. The radio operator kept all the messages with their approval signatures certifying the authenticity of the messages.

August 26
Research Club Provincetown, Mass.

Greetings from N. Greenland to all my good friends in Provincetown. Have many new things of interest for the museum -- MacMillan

This message was last edited by the GM at 15:37, Sun 18 Jan 2009.

 GM, 590 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Sun 18 Jan 2009
at 15:36
Henry Coppinger Alligator wrestler
1921 - Called the "Alligator Boy" from Miami, Florida, he is pictured here as WRESTLING WITH ALLIGATOR in article entitled WILDCAT, ALLIGATOR, GORILLA, WHALE and OCTOPUS as saved from this old American Pictorial magazine.

Henry brought this interesting concept to Miami to bring in tourists.

Seminole Indians picked up this side trade in 1925.

Seminole and Miccosukee Indians, mainly at Musa Isle and Coppingers (tourist camps on the Miami River) and along Tamiami Trail. Views include dugout canoes, studio portraits, fishing, parades, alligators and alligator wrestling, cooking, sewing, villages, and the 1927 Back to the Land publicity event. About 225 views.

This message was last edited by the GM at 17:09, Wed 29 Oct 2014.

 GM, 591 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Sun 18 Jan 2009
at 15:41
Harry Houdini

Harry Houdini (March 24, 1874 – October 31, 1926, born Ehrich Weiss)[1] was a Jewish Hungarian-American magician, escapologist and stunt performer, as well as a skeptic and investigator of spiritualists, film producer and actor. Harry Houdini forever changed the world of magic and escapes, and is widely regarded as one of the greatest escapologists in history.

Harry Houdini died of peritonitis secondary to a ruptured appendix. It has been speculated that Houdini was killed by a McGill University student, J. Gordon Whitehead, who delivered multiple blows to Houdini's abdomen while he was in Montreal.

The eyewitnesses were students named Jacques Price and Sam Smilovitz (sometimes called Jack Price and Sam Smiley). Their accounts generally agreed. The following is according to Price's description of events. Houdini was reclining on his couch after his performance, having an art student sketch him. When Whitehead came in and asked if it was true that Houdini could take any blow to the stomach, Houdini replied in the affirmative. In this instance, he was hit three times, before Houdini protested. Whitehead reportedly continued hitting Houdini several times afterwards, and Houdini acted as though he were in some pain. Price recounted that Houdini stated that if he had had time to prepare himself properly, he would have been in a better position to take the blows.[27] Although in serious pain, Houdini nonetheless continued to travel without seeking medical attention. Harry had apparently been suffering from appendicitis for several days and refusing medical treatment. His appendix would likely have burst on its own without the trauma.[28]

When Houdini arrived at the Garrick Theater in Detroit, Michigan, on October 24, 1926, for what would be his last performance, he had a fever of 40°C degrees (104 F). Despite a diagnosis of acute appendicitis, Houdini took the stage. He was reported to have passed out during the show, but was revived and continued. Afterwards, he was hospitalized at Detroit's Grace Hospital.[29] Houdini died of peritonitis from a ruptured appendix at 1:26 p.m. in Room 401 on October 31 (Halloween), 1926, at the age of 52.

After taking statements from Price and Smilovitz, Houdini's insurance company concluded that the death was due to the dressing-room incident and paid double indemnity.[27]
 GM, 592 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Sun 18 Jan 2009
at 15:47
Florida Governors

State Governors (1845-2008)
(posting only those in a brief range)
William S. Jennings January 8, 1901 to January 3, 1905
Napoleon Bonaparte Broward January 3, 1905 to January 5, 1909
Albert Gilchrist January 5, 1909 to January 7, 1913
Park Trammell January 7, 1913 to January 2, 1917
Sidney Catts January 2, 1917 to January 4, 1921
Cary Hardee January 4, 1921 to January 6, 1925
John Martin January 6, 1925 to January 8, 1929
Doyle Carlton January 8, 1929 to January 3, 1933

Current governor John Martin:
Party Affiliation: Democrat
Lt. Governor: None
First Lady: Lottie Wilt Pepper Martin

Florida Cabinet in 1925:

Secretary of State: Clay Crawford (1902-1929)

Comptroller: Ernest Amos (1917-1933)

Treasurer:  J. C. (John Christian) Luning (1912-1928);
William V. Knott (1928-1941)

Commissioner of Agriculture:  Nathan Mayo (1923-1960)

Attorney General: Rivers Buford (1921-1925);
J.B. Johnson (1925-1927);
Fred H. Davis (1927-1931)

Supt. of Public Instruction: William S. Cawthon (1922-1937)
 GM, 593 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Sun 18 Jan 2009
at 16:02
Florida Palms casino chips
Florida Palms generic poker chips have these in red, blue, yellow and dark brown.  OK-decent used condition. .... .....Shipped 1925 to H. C. Evans, Chicago.  This is a generic chip, used for private poker games, and since they came in so many colors, they were probably used in illegal clubs for roulette and other table games.

This message was last edited by the GM at 17:10, Wed 29 Oct 2014.

 GM, 594 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Sun 18 Jan 2009
at 16:06
Royal Palm Hotel (Miami)
Royal Palm Hotel (Miami)

The Royal Palm Hotel was a large resort hotel built by well-known railroad magnate, Henry Flagler, in Miami, Florida. Opening its doors in 1897, the Royal Palm Hotel was one of the first area hotels in Miami. Five stories tall with a sixth-floor salon, the Royal Palm Hotel featured the city's first electric lights, elevators and swimming pool. Almost thirty years later, The Royal Palm Hotel was grievously damaged by the 1926 hurricane, and infested with termites. In 1930, it was condemned and torn down.

The hotel was built on the site of a Tequesta village. A large mound was removed to make way for the hotel veranda. Between 50 and 60 skulls were found in the mound, and tossed into barrels. Some were later given away as souvenirs.

The hotel stretched 680 feet (210 m) along the Miami River's north bank. A verandah surrounded the hotel, about one-sixth of a mile in length. The hotel was described as "modern Colonial", with an air of "decorous opulence". There were 450 guest rooms and suites. The average guest room was twelve feet by eighteen feet, and 100 of the rooms had private baths. The main dining room would seat 500 guests. A second dining room was for maids and children. There were also private dining rooms. There were parlors, a billiards room, other game rooms, a 45-foot (14 m) by 50-foot (15 m) ballroom, and 100 dressing rooms at the swimming pool. The boiler room, electric plant, kitchens, laundry and ice-makers were in a separate building. The hotel had a staff of 300, including sixteen cooks. Although, at the insistence of Julia Tuttle, a clause prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages had been included in all land deeds for the new city of Miami, the Royal Palm Hotel had an exemption to serve alcohol to its guests during the three months of the tourist season.
 GM, 595 posts
 Welcome to Adventure!
Sun 18 Jan 2009
at 16:14
Miami by Seth H. Bramston
Miami sprang into existence on July 28, 1896, following the extension of the Florida East Coast Railway from West Palm Beach on April 15, 1896, and the publication of the soon-to-be city’s first newspaper, The Miami Metropolis, on May 15, 1896. However, evidence suggests people lived in the area as early as the 1700s. Nicknamed “the Magic City” by publicists working for railroad and hotel builder Henry Flagler, Miami has weathered yellow fever epidemics, World War I, the 1920s boom and bust, World War II, and numerous other economic ups and downs to become one of the world’s great cities and the catalyst for the growth of the South Florida megalopolis.

More details
Miami:: The Magic City
By Seth H. Bramson
Edition: illustrated
Published by Arcadia Publishing, 2007
ISBN 0738543683, 9780738543680
128 pages

Shows picture of Leamington Hotel and Seminole Hotel.

Leamington Hotel (Miami)
307 NE 1st St

Seminole Hotel (Miami)
53 East Flagler Street

This message was last edited by the GM at 15:35, Sun 08 Feb 2009.